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academic American bachelor’s degrees biomedical research computer science creased decade decline demographic trends dents doctorates awarded employed employers employment engi engineering careers engineering doctoral engineering education engineering faculty engineering fields engineering Ph engineering work force factors Federal support fellowships Figure firms foreign nationals full-time Full-Time Equivalent Graduate Education graduate enrollments graduate students groups growth high school higher education hiring Hispanics increase industry institutions labor force labor market major Manpower Commission master’s ment National Academy National Research Council National Science Foundation neering participation in science percent personnel Ph.D physical sciences population Postdoctoral Appointments predoctoral programs projections q q q recipients Resources respondents salaries science and engineering Science and Technology scientists and engineers shortages social sciences SOURCE supply and demand tion tional traineeships U.S. Congress undergraduate University Washington women and minorities
Page 136 - BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH PERSONNEL "'SEC. 473. (a) The Secretary shall, in accordance with subsection (b), arrange for the conduct of a continuing study to— "'(1) establish (A) the Nation's overall need for biomedical and behavioral research personnel, (B) the subject areas in which such personnel are needed and the number of such personnel needed in each such area, and (C) the kinds and extent of training which should be provided such personnel...
Page 5 - Thus, college students appear to be highly responsive to market signals, and appear to shift their career choices dramatically toward fields that promise greater occupational rewards. OTA concludes that career choices and market forces have a greater impact on the supply of scientists and engineers than do demographic trends.
Page 113 - Act of 1980 declares that it is the policy of the United States to encourage men and women, equally, of all ethnic, racial, and economic backgrounds to acquire skills in science, engineering and mathematics, to have equal opportunity in education, training, and employment in scientific and engineering fields, and thereby to promote scientific and engineering literacy and the full use of the human resources of the Nation in science and engineering.
Page 7 - In academia," the report said, "men are far more likely than women to hold tenure-track positions, to be promoted to tenure, and to achieve full professorships, even when academic age, field, and quality of graduate school attended are controlled for.
Page 21 - A slight increase in the rate of selection of science and engineering careers among college age students could more than compensate for the decline in 18 to 24 year olds projected for the 1982-95 time frame.
Page 4 - It is important to remember that there is no national market for scientists and engineers as a group. Rather, there are specific markets for graduates trained in 19 particular disciplines, and these markets anu disciplines can experience very different conditions at the same time.
Page 74 - For the purposes of this article, a postdoctoral appointment is defined as: ... a temporary appointment, the primary purpose of which is to provide for continued education or experience in research usually, though not necessarily, under the supervision of a senior mentor.
Page 24 - ... of variables such as gross national product growth, defense spending, technological change and federal and industrial R & D expenditures, which themselves are not known with any degree of certainty." Moreoever, there is no validated model that can reliably predict the career choices of undergradutes or graduate students, or their responsiveness to changes in demand in technical fields. Thus, the report concludes that "given the problems with forecasting supply and demand for scientists and engineers,...