The Design and Analysis of Research Studies

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, May 14, 1992 - Education - 353 pages
This book provides graduate students and research workers in the biological, medical and social sciences with the statistical background needed to collect and analyse data in an intelligent and critical manner.
 

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Contents

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1
13 Bias and confounding in observational studies
4
14 The sample survey
12
16 Experiments and quasiexperiments
13
17 Ethical considerations
15
18 Planning and carrying out a research study
16
The sample survey
17
22 Simple random sampling
19
The Lanarkshire milk experiment
163
Interrupted time series
167
62 Analysis with the interrupted time series design
168
63 Analysis with the comparative time series design
175
64 Summary and further reading
177
Exercises
178
Fluoridation in Birmingham
182
More advanced experimental designs
188

23 The distribution of sample means
20
24 Estimation of totals and proportions
23
25 Determining sample sizes with simple random sampling
26
26 Stratified sampling
28
27 Sample size allocation for stratified samples
30
28 Stratified sampling for proportions
32
29 Poststratification
33
210 Quota sampling
34
212 Cluster sampling
37
213 Systematic sampling
38
214 Multistage sampling
39
215 Nonsampling errors
40
216 Biased procedures
41
217 Bias introduced during data collection
42
218 Processing errors
43
220 Designing a questionnaire
44
221 Summary and further reading
46
Exercises
47
Checklist for planning a sample survey
57
Other sampling designs
58
33 Removal sampling
62
34 Transect sampling
66
36 Sampling positions of objects in space
68
37 Distancebased methods
70
38 Quadrat counts
75
39 Sampling of quadrats
77
310 Summary and further reading
78
Exercises
79
Site location in prehistoric Thailand
82
The linear regression model
87
43 Estimation and tests with simple linear regression
88
44 Multiple linear regression
92
45 The extra sum of squares principle
94
46 Assessing the assumptions of a regression model
98
47 Residual plots
100
48 Tests on residuals
107
49 The DurbinWatson lest
108
410 Summary and further reading
112
Exercises
113
The loss of sales in a store due to a fire
120
Experimental designs to assess the effect of a treatment
132
52 External and internal validity
133
53 Pseudoreplication
135
54 The onegroup pretestposttest design
137
55 The static group comparison
138
56 The importance of a comparable control group
139
57 Regression to the mean
140
58 The comparative posttest design
142
59 The comparative change design
144
510 The comparative change design without randomization
148
512 Regression adjustments for confounding variables
152
513 Matching
156
514 Summary and further reading
161
73 Some general considerations
194
74 Transformation of data
199
75 Experiments with three or more factors
201
76 Higher order interactions
204
77 Blocking
205
78 Latin squares
208
79 Nested factors
209
710 Splitplot experiments in agricultural research
210
711 Other uses of the splitplot design
213
712 Repeated measures experiments
215
713 The assumption of compound symmetry
217
714 Analysis of variance by multiple regression
219
715 Ancillary analyses
224
716 Summary and further reading
225
An experiment on lockstitch seams
227
Some special types of data
234
82 The analysis of count data
236
83 Chisquared tests on count data
237
84 McNemars test for correlated proportions
242
85 Loglinear models
244
86 Extraneous variance
252
87 Using base rates
253
88 The analysis of proportion data
255
89 Survival data
261
810 Generalized linear modelling
263
811 Multivariate data
264
812 Summary and further reading
266
Exercises
267
The location of prehistoric Maya sites
270
Computer intensive statistics
286
92 Randomization tests
288
93 Determining the number of randomizations required
292
94 Confidence limits by randomization
293
95 Monte Carlo tests
294
96 Jackknifing
298
97 Bootstrapping
302
98 Summary and further reading
304
Exercise
305
Ethical considerations
312
103 Obligations to funders and employers
313
104 Obligations to colleagues
314
106 Experiments on animals
316
A clinical trial on ECMO
317
Synthesis carrying out a research study
321
113 Planning the collection of data
324
114 Sample size determination
325
115 Collecting data
334
117 The research report
335
References
336
Author index
345
Subject index
348
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