The Diversity and Evolution of Plants
This exciting new textbook examines the concepts of evolution as the underlying cause of the rich diversity of life on earth-and our danger of losing that rich diversity. Written as a college textbook, The Diversity and Evolution of Plants introduces the great variety of life during past ages, manifested by the fossil record, using a new natural classification system. It begins in the Proterozoic Era, when bacteria and bluegreen algae first appeared, and continues through the explosions of new marine forms in the Helikian and Hadrynian Periods, land plants in the Devonian, and flowering plants in the Cretaceous. Following an introduction, the three subkingdoms of plants are discussed. Each chapter covers one of the eleven divisions of plants and begins with an interesting vignette of a plant typical of that division. A section on each of the classes within the division follows. Each section describes where the groups of plants are found and their distinguishing features. Discussions in each section include phylogeny and classification, general morphology, and physiology, ecological significance, economic uses, and potential for research. Suggested readings and student exercises are found at the end of each chapter.
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Plant Diversity in Time and Space
THE RED LINE
Molds and Mushrooms
Lichens and Other Symbiotic Plants
THE BROWN LINE
THE GREEN LINE
The Pond Mosses Siphonophytes and Stoneworts
Mosses and Liverworts
The Fern Allies and Origin of the Vascular Plants
the Flowering Plants
abundant acid algal angiosperms animals Anthopsida archegonium areas Ascomycopsida asexual bacteria Basidiomycopsida blue-green algae botanists branched cell walls characteristics Chlorophycopsida chromosomes classes classified coenocytic color common conidia cortex Cretaceous Cryptophycopsida Cyanophycopsida cycads cycle develop Devonian diatoms differentiation dinoflagellates diploid disease ecological ecosystems euglenids Eumycophyta evolution evolved families ferns fertilization Figure filaments flagella flagellated flowers forests fossil record freshwater fungi fungus gametes gametophyte genera genetic genus germinate green algae grow growth gymnosperms habitats haploid hyphae layer leaf leaves lichens liverworts marine Mastigomycopsida meiosis meiospores microscope million morphological mosses motile mushrooms mycelium nuclei occur orders organisms parasites phloem photosynthesis pigments Pinopsida plastids pollen grains pollution produced red seaweeds reproduction resemble rhizoids Rhodophycopsida roots saprophytes seed similar slime molds soil species sperm sporangia spores sporocarps sporophyte stems structure studies Table thallus tissue Tracheophyta tropical typical unicellular usually vascular plants vegetative Xanthophycopsida xylem Zygomycopsida zygote