Anti-Semitism is an exceptional historical phenomenon whose history extends at least two millennia into the past, as its discriminatory vitriol affecting many countries and a wide range of societies. Yet despite that history, the conditions of anti-Semitism are not universal. Many countries have no tradition of anti-Semitic thought, and even in those nations where anti-Semitism periodically rears its head, there have been long periods when it was nearly dormant. This definitive study tackles the complex roots and manifestations of anti-Semitism over the centuries, tracing the rise of anti-Jewish stereotypes and the circumstances in which racial prejudice has led to tragic consequences. As the large-scale social changes of the past two millennia have given extra impetus to the reappearance of cultural bias, this is a timely and important contribution to social historical scholarship.