The Economic Implications of Aging Societies: The Costs of Living Happily Ever After
Cambridge University Press, 17 січ. 2005 р. - 396 стор.
The world is getting older and no one knows exactly what life will be like in tomorrow's older societies. But we do know that age dependency ratios--the ratio of retirees to workers--will be much higher than we see today. The combined effects of fewer workers, more retirees and longer retirement periods threaten not only the sustainability of pension systems but also the broader economic prospects of many developed countries. This analysis describes current trends in birth rates, longevity and labor force participation and productivity, the cross-border flow of capital, the globalization of labor markets, the financial viability of social insurance programs, and the ways economic output is shared between working-age and retiree populations.
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Не знайдено жодних рецензій.
Population Developments in a Global Context
Pension Options Motivations and Choices
Labor Supply Patterns and the Efficiency of Alternative
Pension Structures and the Implications of Aging
Retirement Systems and the Economic Costs of Aging
Beyond Pensions to Health Care Considerations
Labor Supply and Living Standards
Alternatives to Finding More Workers
Aligning Retirement Policy with Labor Needs
Funding Pensions and Securing Retiree Claims
Macroeconomic Policies for Improved Living Standards
Risks Associated with Alternative Public Policies
Roadmap to the Future
Some Portion of Retirement Savings Should be Annuitized
Facilitating CrossNational Capital Flows
Too Many Wants or Too Few Workers?
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accumulated aged dependency aging populations annual assets Australia Austria average baseline Belgium Canada capital deepening changes cohorts coming decades costs decline defined benefit defined contribution demographic Denmark dependency ratio developed countries developed economies early retirement earnings economic growth elderly employers estimates expectancy expenditures female fertility rates financing Finland force participation rates France Germany growth rates higher improvements income increase investment Ireland Italy Japan labor force participation labor market labor supply levels Mexico Netherlands non-elderly normal retirement age Norway OECD OECD countries older output patterns payroll tax pension programs pension system percent percentage period policymakers population aging productivity growth projections public pension rates of return reduced relatively replacement rates retirement plans retirement programs retirement systems savings rates societies Source Spain standards of living Sweden Switzerland Table U.S. Social Security United Kingdom wage Watson Wyatt Worldwide women workers workforce World Bank World Population Prospects
Gesellschaft im Wandel: Aktuelle ökonomische Herausforderungen
Lars Weber,Claudia Lubk,Annette Mayer
Обмежений попередній перегляд - 2008
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