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agricul agricultural exports average Bogota cassava CM CM CM coffee exports Colombia Colombian peso commercial policy commodities consumption cost of importing demand for imports demand function Departamento Nacional domestic price dummy variable Durbin-Watson statistics effect export exchange rate export price index Export Promotion System export subsidies exportable goods relative Exportaciones figures food output food products foreign exchange import restrictions import substitution import tariff imports and exports incentives incidence of commercial incidence parameter increase industrial exports International Monetary Fund international price indexes Jorge Garcia measure minor exports Nacional de Planeación nominal rate noncoffee nontraded food opportunity cost output of food overvaluation partial equilibrium percent period peso price distortions price of home price of importable Px/Ph quantitative restrictions rate of protection ratio raw materials relative prices relative to home Republica sugar Table tariff on imports tariffs and export tion total imports trade policies traditional exports tural U.S. dollars
Page 39 - El crecimiento de las exportaciones menores y el sistema de fomento de las exportaciones en Colombia", Revista del Banco de la República.
Page 14 - Development," in International Economic Policy: Theory and Evidence, ed. Rudiger Dornbusch and Jacob A. Frenkel (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979). On Colombian policy see Luis Jorge Garay S., "La politica de importaciones, 1978-82: Una evaluacion" (Bogota, June 1982, processed) 2 . Imports fall under free registration or prior import licensing.
Page 12 - The New Macroeconomics of Agriculture," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol.
Page 19 - E is the nominal exchange rate (number of units of domestic currency per unit of foreign currency) and s and t represent export subsidies and import tariffs respectively, then, P x =EPj(1+s».
Page 14 - Es importante la Seguridad del Suministro de Alimentos en Colombia".
Page 15 - W. Max Corden. Trade Policy and Economic Welfare. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974. A careful survey of economic arguments for and against protection. Harry Flam. "Product Markets and 1992: Full Integration, Large Gains?
Page 40 - In determining the exchange rate for imports, all taxes and other surcharges on imports that implicitly raise the cost of importing should be included and import subsidies and other measures that reduce the cost of importing should be deducted. The exchange rate for exports should be net of taxes and include all subsidies, direct or indirect, that in one way or another can raise the price received by exporters. While the ratio between the two rates measures bias, it tells nothing about the incidence...
Page 23 - Equation (7) states that general equilibrium is reestablished through changes in the prices of importables and exportables relative to the prices of home goods and also...