The Effects of Hypergravity and Microgravity on Biomedical Experiments

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Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 70 pages
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Take one elephant and one man to the top of a tower and simultaneously drop. Which will hit the ground first?You are a pilot of a jet fighter performing a high-speed loop. Will you pass out during the maneuver?How can you simulate being an astronaut with your feet still firmly placed on planet Earth?In the aerospace environment, human, animal, and plant physiology differs significantly from that on Earth, and this book provides reasons for some of these changes. The challenges encountered by pilots in their missions can have implications on the health and safety of not only themselves but others. Knowing the effects of hypergravity on the human body during high-speed flight led to the development of human centrifuges. We also need to better understand the physiological responses of living organisms in space. It is therefore necessary to simulate weightlessness through the use of specially adapted equipment, such as clinostats, tilt tables, and body suspension devices.Each of these ideas, and more, is addressed in this review of the physical concepts related to space flights, microgravity, and hypergravity simulations. Basic theories, such as Newton‚€™s law and Einstein‚€™s principle are explained, followed by a look at the biomedical effects of experiments performed in space life sciences institutes, universities, and space agencies.Table of Contents: General Concepts in Physics - Definition of Physical Terms / The Effects of Hypergravity on Biomedical Experiments / The Effects of Microgravity on Biomedical Experiments / References
 

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Contents

General concepts in Physics Definition of Physical Terms
1
12 Weight Versus Mass and Inertial Mass
4
13 Apparent Weight and Normal Force
5
14 The Einstein Principle
7
15 Microgravity
8
16 Hypogravity
13
171 Underwater Immersion
14
18 Hypergravity
15
252 Magnetic Rings Representing Intervertebral Disks
31
253 Spring and Rubber Band with an Attached Mass Modeling Muscle Function
33
25 Eruca sativa Mill Rocket Plant
34
The Effects of Microgravity on Biomedical Experiments
39
311 Bed Rest and Bed RestAssociated HDT
40
312 Tilt Tables
41
313 Water Immersion Neutral Buoyancy
46
31 Immobilization
48

The Effects of Hypergravity on Biomedical Experiments
17
211 Positive Gz Effects
18
212 Negative Gz Effects
20
22 G Impact in Space Missions
21
23 Human Centrifuges
24
24 The Microgravity Centre Hypergravity Experiments
28
25 Test Models
30
315 Body Suspension Devices
49
316 Baranys Chair
50
317 3D Clinostat
52
32 Collection of Peripheral Blood and Isolation of Mononuclear Cells
60
331 Statistical Analysis
61
References
65
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Page 4 - Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every particle in the Universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Page 2 - ... the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force, and the strong nuclear force.
Page 3 - I am who am. And that was fine until one day, Adam, rather in the manner of Newton, was sitting under a tree and an apple fell on his head jolting him into thought. Whatever can he mean, said Adam, I am who am? And he waited until the next time God came strolling by, and he said, excuse me — or whatever they said in those days.

About the author (2008)

Thais Russomano is the founder and coordinator of the internationally recognized Centre of Microgravity at PUCRS University Brazil (a unique reference center of Latin America in the study of human space physiology and space biomedical engineering), an associate professor of PUCRS University, a guest scientist at the German Space Agency, and a visiting professor/senior research fellow at King's College London.

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