The Electrical Nature of Matter and Radioactivity

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D. Van Nostrand Company, 1915 - Matter - 212 pages
 

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Page 23 - ... the electron is the ultimate unit of all matter. The atoms are made up of electrons or disembodied electrical charges in rapid motion ; the atom of one elementary substance differing from the atom of another elementary substance only in the number and arrangement of electrons contained in it.
Page 3 - It was recognized to be of importance to determine the ratio of the charge to the mass of the ion in gases. If we represent the charge carried by the gaseous ion to be e, and the mass of the ion by m, the ratio in question is e/m.
Page iii - Electrical Nature of Matter and Radioactivity' as far as possible in non-mathematical language. This has been done with the belief that there are a large number of those who have a truly scientific interest in these most recent and important developments in physics and physical chemistry, but to whom a more technical and rigidly mathematical treatment might not appeal." There is a curious omission of the units on p. 3. "The ratio of the charge carried by these ions [of an electrolyte] to their mass...
Page 23 - ... all matter. The atoms are made up of electrons or disembodied electrical charges in rapid motion ; the atom of one elementary substance differing from the atom of another elementary substance only in the number and arrangement of electrons contained in it. Thus we have, at last, the ultimate unit of which all forms of matter are composed; and the remarkable feature is, that this ultimate unit of which all matter is composed is not matter at all, as we ordinarily understand the term, but electricity....
Page 13 - ... taken as nearly equal. We cannot say how closely the molecules are packed in a liquid, and thus some uncertainty is introduced into the results obtained. Thus we have two relations between number and size, and from these two we can calculate approximately both number and size. The result obtained is that the number of molecules in a cubic centimetre of a gas at 0 C. and atmospheric pressure is about 6 x 1019.
Page 23 - Whatever our opinion of the paper as a whole, there is one point at least brought out so clearly that there can scarcely be any question about it, and that is, that matter is a pure hypothesis. What we know in the universe, and all that we know, is changes in energy. In order to have something to which we can mentally attach the energy, we have created, in our imagination, matter. Matter, then, is a pure hypothesis, and energy is the only reality. We are accustomed to take exactly the opposite view,...
Page 181 - There is some evidence, as we shall see, that many of the elements are radioactive to a very slight extent. If this should be proved to be due to the elements themselves, to be a property inherent in all matter, and not caused by the deposition of some form of radioactive matter, then, from what has been said above, we must regard matter in general as undergoing change. This change is slow, very slow, but is progressing continuously; the more complex, unstable forms, breaking down into simpler aggregates...
Page 177 - ... is condensed in the spiral, the thorium or radium compound may be removed and the gas stream sent directly into the spiral. But in the case of thorium under these conditions, the effects observed are naturally small owing to the rapid loss of the activity of the emanation with time, which proceeds at the same rate at the temperature of liquid air as at ordinary temperatures. If a large amount of radium emanation is condensed in a glass U tube, the progress of the condensation can be followed...
Page ix - Phil. Mag. Philosophical Magazine. Phil. Trans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
Page 205 - ... the facts to which we must now adapt ourselves. "These are magnificent developments with which to open the new century. Probably still more surprising facts are awaiting men of science before its close. It seems not too much to predict that as the nineteenth century surpassed the preceding eighteen in the development of scientific knowledge and the discovery of truth, just so the twentieth century will exceed them all in the gifts of pure science to the store of human knowledge. "The wave of...

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