The Elements of Logic
Presents an introductory logic text, designed for courses that cover both formal and informal logic. This text covers a range of topics, and many exercises with illustrated principles. It includes material on the logic of identity, the use of logic in writing, and the status of logic laws.
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THE LOGIC OF CATEGORICAL SENTENCES
THE LOGIC OF TRUTH FUNCTIONS
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ambiguity analogy antecedent argu argument is valid beg the question believe called categorical sentence categorical syllogism cause claim clusion component compound sentence conditional conjunction consider contains contradiction contrapositive definition degree of probability discussion disjunction empirical enthymeme everything evidence example existential instantiation existential quantification existential viewpoint explain expression F F F F T F fallacy Figure formal fallacy hypothesis implies inconsistent inductive argument inductive reasoning inference input instance invalid kind knows algebra knows calculus least one thing logical form logical laws major premise means ment method modus ponens modus tollens necessarily true negation sign observed output p v q person philosophers predicate premises and conclusion principles quantificational deduction regards truth rules Samoans sense sentence says solid someone speaker succubi Suppose swans symbolized tautology tence term tion truth and falsity truth table truth-functional truth-functionally universal quantification validly variable Venn diagrams word