The Engineering of Sport 7, Volume 2

Front Cover
Margaret Estivalet, Pierre Brisson
Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 8, 2009 - Technology & Engineering - 703 pages
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During the last years, artificial turf pitches have become commonly used for sports like hockey, tennis, rugby and football. The acceptance of this sport surface has found obj- tions in sports like football because first generations of artificial turf showed many problems and differences respect to the natural grass. These differences have been reduced but a serious problem exists yet: skin injuries due to sliding. This problem has been called “turf-burns”. The risk of this turf burn curbs the players when playing on artificial turf (Lees and Nolan, 1998). Gaulrapp et al. found that the number of injuries on artificial turf was higher than on natural grass and these skin injuries frequently occur during a sliding trackle (Gaulrapp et al., 1999). These injuries are caused by two mechanisms: burn and scrape. It is possible that burn is due to an increase of temperature and it occurs when the player is sliding on the surfaces; it is possible that the scrape occurs when this slide starts because the friction is higher in this moment. This problem is being studied and some testing devices have been developed.
 

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Contents

a Vortex evolving from the leading edge b Back view
334
Determining Friction Coefficients
339
Comparison Between Observed
345
Testing the Unconventional
353
Development and Validation
358
Evaluation of the Estimation Method
367
Kinematics and EMG Analysis
375
a Reliable Indicator of Oxygen
383

Logarithmic Viscoelastic Impact Modelling of
44
Rowing Strategies in Cambridge Bumps Races
53
Improvements to a Sailing VR Simulator
64
The Behaviour of Recycled Rubber Shockpads
77
Figure 2 The effect of shockpad thickness on the
84
Implementation of Knowledge Engineering
88
Longterm Cushioning Properties of Running
95
An Analysis of the Interaction Between Slider
101
Determining Ground Reaction Forces Using a
111
Figure 1 Deviation of force values in studies
113
Mechanics of the Bob Skeleton and Analysis of
117
Subjective Evaluation of Sport Equipment
126
Hot Glide Wax Treatment and the Hardness of
135
Figure 4 SRS hardness in relation to period of
139
Creating 3D muscle lengths and moment arms
142
Development of a New Technique to Evaluate
149
Aerodynamic Study of Ski Jumping Flight
157
The spin decay of sports balls in flight P172
165
Optimised preliminary design of a kayak
171
qi
174
Dynamics of a StringBed Damper on Tennis
179
Figure 1 One pair of modified weighing scales and
195
Design of an Ice Hockey Stick Test Machine
199
A Novel Approach to Personalising
207
Testing Procedures
215
Figure 2 Pitching machine COR setup
217
Holistic Innovationin Sports P183
223
Detecting Location using Sensors
232
Use of Static Stiffness Behaviour
239
Finite Element Analysis of the Heat Transfer
247
Determination of the Optimal Saddle Height
255
33 Comfort Coefficient
260
Relationship between Pelvic MotionTorque and Metabolic Energy in Running P189
261
Relationship Between Gluteus Medius
267
A New Technological Tool to Measure
272
Experimental Measurement
279
Figure 4 Snowboard Stiffness
283
Real Time Analysis
288
Effects of Poles StiffnessSlope and Type
297
Development of SmallSized Swimming
303
Parametric Study of Bicycle Stability P207
310
Evidence for their
319
Improving the Performance of a Bobsleigh
329
Roller Ski Rolling Resistance and its Effects
393
Aerodynamics of Time Trial Bicycle Helmets
401
Figure 5 Helmet orientation influence on drag resistance in
406
Acquisition and Analysis of EMG Data During
411
A New Evaluation System
419
Figure 2 Calculated lateral deviations d 100CL for
433
Forelimb Kinematics of Galloping
437
Classification of Aerial Acrobatics
447
A Modified Lift Mechanics Theory for Downhill
457
Wu et als skiing mechanics theory is the first realistic
460
Figure 3 Geometric snowboard dimensions described using common nomenclature
461
Technology And HalfPipe Snowboard
466
The Bike Fit of the Road Professional Cyclist
483
Impact Behaviour of SkiBoots
489
Acquisition of Structural Loads Acting on the
499
Lateral bending
507
Structural Optimization of Classic and Skating
509
Monitoring of Bioimpedance Data
517
Optimization of Torque in Pole Vaulting
525
31 Objective Function
529
A new Dimensionless Number for Dynamic
534
Essential Ski Characteristics
543
Extreme Sports Perceived by Students
551
The computer record and analysis
557
Dynamic Model of a Badminton Stroke P254
563
Maximal Energy Expenditure
572
An Integrated Approach
577
Management of New Ideas
587
The management of sporting innovation
597
Exercise History
612
Analysis of the Holonomic Constraint
623
of each of the wheels Thus φ θB and δ
626
10
627
Structural Behaviour of Ski Safety Barriers
632
Structural Behaviour of Slalom Skis
643
FiniteElement Analysis of the Collision
653
Experimental Investigation
663
An Experimental Investigation of the Effect
673
The Effect of Baseball Construction
680
Does the Use of a Light Discus Modify
689
Better Coaching the Paralympics Swimmers
695
Figure 1 Linear Relationships between Swim velocity Frequency FO
696
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