## The Engineering of Sport 7, Volume 2Margaret Estivalet, Pierre Brisson During the last years, artificial turf pitches have become commonly used for sports like hockey, tennis, rugby and football. The acceptance of this sport surface has found obj- tions in sports like football because first generations of artificial turf showed many problems and differences respect to the natural grass. These differences have been reduced but a serious problem exists yet: skin injuries due to sliding. This problem has been called “turf-burns”. The risk of this turf burn curbs the players when playing on artificial turf (Lees and Nolan, 1998). Gaulrapp et al. found that the number of injuries on artificial turf was higher than on natural grass and these skin injuries frequently occur during a sliding trackle (Gaulrapp et al., 1999). These injuries are caused by two mechanisms: burn and scrape. It is possible that burn is due to an increase of temperature and it occurs when the player is sliding on the surfaces; it is possible that the scrape occurs when this slide starts because the friction is higher in this moment. This problem is being studied and some testing devices have been developed. |

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### Contents

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a Vortex evolving from the leading edge b Back view | 334 |

Determining Friction Coefficients | 339 |

Comparison Between Observed | 345 |

Testing the Unconventional | 353 |

Development and Validation | 358 |

Evaluation of the Estimation Method | 367 |

Kinematics and EMG Analysis | 375 |

a Reliable Indicator of Oxygen | 383 |

Logarithmic Viscoelastic Impact Modelling of | 44 |

Rowing Strategies in Cambridge Bumps Races | 53 |

Improvements to a Sailing VR Simulator | 64 |

The Behaviour of Recycled Rubber Shockpads | 77 |

Figure 2 The effect of shockpad thickness on the | 84 |

Implementation of Knowledge Engineering | 88 |

Longterm Cushioning Properties of Running | 95 |

An Analysis of the Interaction Between Slider | 101 |

Determining Ground Reaction Forces Using a | 111 |

Figure 1 Deviation of force values in studies | 113 |

Mechanics of the Bob Skeleton and Analysis of | 117 |

Subjective Evaluation of Sport Equipment | 126 |

Hot Glide Wax Treatment and the Hardness of | 135 |

Figure 4 SRS hardness in relation to period of | 139 |

Creating 3D muscle lengths and moment arms | 142 |

Development of a New Technique to Evaluate | 149 |

Aerodynamic Study of Ski Jumping Flight | 157 |

The spin decay of sports balls in flight P172 | 165 |

Optimised preliminary design of a kayak | 171 |

qi | 174 |

Dynamics of a StringBed Damper on Tennis | 179 |

Figure 1 One pair of modified weighing scales and | 195 |

Design of an Ice Hockey Stick Test Machine | 199 |

A Novel Approach to Personalising | 207 |

Testing Procedures | 215 |

Figure 2 Pitching machine COR setup | 217 |

Holistic Innovationin Sports P183 | 223 |

Detecting Location using Sensors | 232 |

Use of Static Stiffness Behaviour | 239 |

Finite Element Analysis of the Heat Transfer | 247 |

Determination of the Optimal Saddle Height | 255 |

33 Comfort Coefficient | 260 |

Relationship between Pelvic MotionTorque and Metabolic Energy in Running P189 | 261 |

Relationship Between Gluteus Medius | 267 |

A New Technological Tool to Measure | 272 |

Experimental Measurement | 279 |

Figure 4 Snowboard Stiffness | 283 |

Real Time Analysis | 288 |

Effects of Poles StiffnessSlope and Type | 297 |

Development of SmallSized Swimming | 303 |

Parametric Study of Bicycle Stability P207 | 310 |

Evidence for their | 319 |

Improving the Performance of a Bobsleigh | 329 |

Roller Ski Rolling Resistance and its Effects | 393 |

Aerodynamics of Time Trial Bicycle Helmets | 401 |

Figure 5 Helmet orientation influence on drag resistance in | 406 |

Acquisition and Analysis of EMG Data During | 411 |

A New Evaluation System | 419 |

Figure 2 Calculated lateral deviations d 100CL for | 433 |

Forelimb Kinematics of Galloping | 437 |

Classification of Aerial Acrobatics | 447 |

A Modified Lift Mechanics Theory for Downhill | 457 |

Wu et als skiing mechanics theory is the first realistic | 460 |

Figure 3 Geometric snowboard dimensions described using common nomenclature | 461 |

Technology And HalfPipe Snowboard | 466 |

The Bike Fit of the Road Professional Cyclist | 483 |

Impact Behaviour of SkiBoots | 489 |

Acquisition of Structural Loads Acting on the | 499 |

Lateral bending | 507 |

Structural Optimization of Classic and Skating | 509 |

Monitoring of Bioimpedance Data | 517 |

Optimization of Torque in Pole Vaulting | 525 |

31 Objective Function | 529 |

A new Dimensionless Number for Dynamic | 534 |

Essential Ski Characteristics | 543 |

Extreme Sports Perceived by Students | 551 |

The computer record and analysis | 557 |

Dynamic Model of a Badminton Stroke P254 | 563 |

Maximal Energy Expenditure | 572 |

An Integrated Approach | 577 |

Management of New Ideas | 587 |

The management of sporting innovation | 597 |

Exercise History | 612 |

Analysis of the Holonomic Constraint | 623 |

of each of the wheels Thus φ θB and δ | 626 |

10 | 627 |

Structural Behaviour of Ski Safety Barriers | 632 |

Structural Behaviour of Slalom Skis | 643 |

FiniteElement Analysis of the Collision | 653 |

Experimental Investigation | 663 |

An Experimental Investigation of the Effect | 673 |

The Effect of Baseball Construction | 680 |

Does the Use of a Light Discus Modify | 689 |

Better Coaching the Paralympics Swimmers | 695 |

Figure 1 Linear Relationships between Swim velocity Frequency FO | 696 |

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