The Ethical Challenges of Human Research: Selected Essays
The use of human beings as research subjects poses distinctive ethical issues. Subjects of medical research are exposed to risks of harm for the sake of generating scientific knowledge that can benefit future patients and society. Ethical analysis of the challenges posed by research involving human subjects requires careful attention to the contextual details of scientific experimentation. This book contains 22 essays by Franklin G. Miller on research ethics written over a 15-year period. With the exception of the first essay, all have been previously published in bioethics and medical journals. The book is arranged into four parts. Part One addresses a general ethical perspective on the protection of human subjects in clinical research, including paternalism in research regulation and acceptable limits to research risks. The essays in Part Two examine ethical issues in study design. It includes ethical analyses of controversial types of medical experimentation-studies that provoke psychiatric symptoms, induce infections, provide patients with placebos that withhold proven effective treatments or administer fake invasive procedures, test experimental treatments in cancer patients who have exhausted all standard treatment options, and employ the use of deception to generate scientifically valid data. Part Three offers a systematic critique of "the therapeutic orientation" to clinical trials and the principle of clinical equipoise, which is widely regarded as a fundamental norm for randomized treatment studies. Part Four takes up a range of ethical issues relating to informed consent for research participation, including examination of "the therapeutic misconception" and presentation of a novel approach to the validity of consent: "the fair transaction model." An abiding theme, developed in many of the essays is that the ethics of clinical research is importantly different from the ethics of medical care.
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
Other editions - View all
active-controlled alternative medicine Appelbaum argued authorized deception autonomy Beecher Belmont Report Bioethics cancer challenge experiments Clin clinical equipoise clinical research clinicians concern conduct controlled trials coverage debriefing deceptive research decisions Declaration of Helsinki direct medical benefit disease drug efficacy Emanuel enroll ethics of clinical evaluate Freedman harm human experimentation human subjects ical individual informed consent institutional review boards interim findings interventions IRBs justified medical records methodological monitoring moral Nuremberg Code oncology trials outcomes patient volunteers patient-subjects phase 1 oncology phase 1 trials physician investigators placebo effect placebo-controlled trials potential principle procedures prospect of direct protect protocols proven effective treatment randomized clinical trials randomized trials RCTs reasonable receive regulations relevant research ethics research involving research participation research subjects response risk–benefit assessment risk–benefit ratio risks scientific validity sham surgery soft paternalism standard medical standard treatment symptoms therapeutic misconception therapy tion trial participation unethical valid consent Weijer Wendler