The European Culture Area: A Systematic Geography

Front Cover
A sixth edition of this book is now available. Now in a fully updated fifth edition, this premier text has been thoroughly revised to reflect the sweeping changes the past decade has brought to Europe. Long hailed for its creativity and intellectual depth, the book is now further enriched by the expertise of a new lead author, noted geographer Alexander B. Murphy. In this edition, he has focused on Europe's role in the wider world and incorporated new research and teaching approaches in regional geography. The book employs a cultural-historical approach that is ideally suited to facilitate understanding of Europe's ancient, complex geographical character. Its topical organization including environment, ethnicity, religion, language, demography, politics, industry, and urban and rural life offers students a holistic understanding of the diverse European culture area. Inclusive, intellectual, rich in ideas, lively, interesting, and humanistic, The European Culture Area remains the text of choice for courses on the geography of Europe."
 

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Contents

What Is Europe?
1
Europe as a Human Entity
7
Placing Europe
11
This Books Approach
16
Why Study Europe?
19
Sources and Suggested Readings
23
Habitat
25
MOUNTAINS
29
SHIFTING CULTIVATION OF THE NORTH
209
Traditional Land and Settlement Patterns
211
New Crop Introductions
217
Modern Agricultural Systems
219
MARKET GARDENING
221
DAIRYING
222
CATTLEHOG FATTENING
224
SHEEP RAISING
225

HILLS
33
HYDROGEOGRAPHY
35
HUMAN MODIFICATION OF LANDS AND WATERS
37
THE SPECIAL CASE OF THE NETHERLANDS
38
Europes Climate
45
MARINE WEST COAST
48
MEDITERRANEAN
49
HUMID CONTINENTAL
50
MINOR CLIMATE TYPES
51
HUMAN ALTERATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE
52
Vegetation Patterns
54
MIXED DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS FOREST
58
MEDITERRANEAN FOREST
61
SMALLERSCALE VEGETATION ZONES
63
THE IMPACTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION ON FORESTS
64
Soils
65
Sources and Suggested Readings
67
Demography
71
The Big Picture
72
The Role of the Environment
75
Rates of Natural Population Growth
77
PoliticalEconomic Circumstances
81
Migration
85
Scale Differences
89
Sources and Suggested Readings
91
The Pattern of Languages
95
The Diffusion of IndoEuropean Tongues into Europe
100
The Three Major Subfamilies of IndoEuropean
103
GERMANIC LANGUAGES
106
The Special Case of English
109
SLAVIC LANGUAGES
110
Other IndoEuropean Languages
111
NonIndoEuropean Languages
114
Linguistic Decline and Revival
117
Multilingualism
119
Sources and Suggested Readings
121
The Geography of Religion
125
PreChristian Europe
126
Diffusion of Christianity
128
Christian Fragmentation
132
ROMAN CATHOLICISM
133
Pilgrimages
135
PROTESTANTISM
136
EASTERN ORTHODOXY
140
The EastWest Divide
143
Uniate and Armenian Churches
146
Sects and Cults
148
NonChristian Minorities
149
JUDAISM
155
Conclusion
157
Sources and Suggested Readings
158
The European State System
161
The Emergence of the European State Pattern
163
The TwentiethCentury European State
169
Case Studies
174
FEDERALISM IN THE EUROPEAN CORE
176
COREPERIPHERY TENSIONS
178
ROMAN LEGACY
180
A MULTIETHNIC STATE
181
ASTRIDE A LANGUAGE DIVIDE
183
FRAGMENTATION IN THE BALKANS
186
NATIONSTATE OR EMPIRE?
188
FROM BORDER PROVINCE TO INDEPENDENT STATE
191
Supranational Military Engagements
196
Sources and Suggested Readings
198
Land and Life in the Rural Sector
201
MEDITERRANEAN AGRICULTURE
203
THREEFIELD FARMING
207
HARDSCRABBLE HERDERFARMERS
208
FISHING AND FISH FARMING
226
Land Tenure in the Modern Era
227
Productivity Patterns
230
Rural Depopulation
233
Preserving Rural Landscapes
234
Sources and Suggested Readings
235
Manufacturing and Industry
237
TRADITIONAL MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
239
Diffusion of the Industrial Revolution
243
SPREADING BEYOND THE COALFIELDS
246
Social and Political Dimensions of Industrialization
248
Environmental Dimensions of Industrialization
250
Deindustrialization
252
Industrial Rejuvenation
256
Core and Periphery
258
Sources and Suggested Readings
259
The Service and Information Economy
263
Transportation
265
RAILROADS
271
WATERWAYS
277
PIPELINES
280
AIR TRANSPORT
281
Communications
282
Tourism
285
Retailing and GovernmentalSocial Services
290
Sources and Suggested Readings
292
The European City
295
The Medieval City
299
CITY SITES
301
CITY ATTRIBUTES
305
MEDIEVAL URBAN MORPHOLOGY
307
RenaissanceBaroque Urban Development 15001800
310
Characteristics of the MidTwentieth Century European City
313
The LatePostindustrial European City
316
THE PREINDUSTRIAL CORE
319
THE PREINDUSTRIAL PERIPHERY
320
THE POSTINDUSTRIAL SUBURBS
321
Regional Variations
322
The Modern Urban Pattern
331
Sources and Suggested Readings
334
Europes Changing Social and Ethnic Geography
341
Patterns of Social WeilBeing
344
Health
349
Employment
352
Education
353
The Role of Women
354
Ethnic Patterns
357
The Traditional Social Model in Transition
364
THE DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE
366
THE IMMIGRATION CHALLENGE
370
Sources and Suggested Challenge
371
Whither European Integration?
375
Impetuses for Integration
378
THE CHANGING GEOPOLITICAL ORDER
379
RELATIONSHIPS WITH SURROUNDING REGIONS
381
HEIGHTENED INTERACTION
382
THE IRRATIONALITY OF THE PATTERN OF STATES
384
ETHNOREGIONALISM
385
Impetuses for Fragmentation
387
THE CHANGING GEOPOLITICAL ORDER
388
BUREAUCRATIZATION
390
DIFFERENCES OVER WIDENING AND DEEPENING
391
HEIGHTENED INTERACTION
392
ETHNOREGIONALISM
394
Sources and Suggested Readings
398
Glossary
401
Index
411
About the Authors
425
Copyright

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About the author (2009)

Alexander B. Murphy is professor of geography and Rippey Chair in Liberal Arts and Sciences at the University of Oregon. Terry G. Jordan-Bychkov (1938 2003) was Walter Prescott Webb Professor of History and Ideas in the Department of Geography at the University of Texas, Austin. Bella Bychkova Jordan is lecturer in the Department of Geography and the Center for Russian, East European, and Eurasian Studies at the University of Texas, Austin.

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