The Failure of the United Nations Development Programs for Africa
This study attempts to explain why the two major United Nations (U.N.) development programs for Africa in the 1980s and 1990s, UNPAAERD and UNNADAF, failed to promote economic and social development. Additionally, this study systematically analyzes the two development programs and identifies the internal and external causes of their failure by focusing on the processes of their formulation, adoption, implementation and evaluation within the U.N. General Assembly and discussing their formation and implementation within the context of the late 20th century world economic order.
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13th Special Session 18 December 20th century world AAF-SAP adoption African countries African economies African political leaders agricultural Albert Zafy analysts annex Assembly billion Bowman Bretton Woods institutions capita GNP capitalist developed countries capitalist material capabilities causes cent century world economic collective self-reliance conditions in Africa consequences cooperation and integration decline dependency theory development programs Didier Ratsiraka document domestic Durufle economic and social EPZ sector export external debt failure financial resources GDP growth rates goals group of African implementation of UNNADAF implementation of UNPAAERD included increased international community investment inward-looking development strategy late 20th century liberal ideas Madagascar Malagasy Mauritian government Mauritius ODA and FDI parag period policy makers political instability production Rapley Resolution S-13/2 Robert Cox SAPs social conditions social development social problems structural adjustment programs sugar UN development programs UN General Assembly United Nations UNPAAERD and UNNADAF World Bank world economic order