The Forms of Music
Donald Francis Tovey Born in 1 875, Donald Francis Tovey was a British musicologist and composer. He took classical honors with his B. A. at Ox ford in 1898, and became a pianist of the first rank, though he never sought a virtuoso career. From 1914 to 1940 he was Reid Professor of Music at Edinburgh University. He died in 1 940. His other books include Normality and Freedom in Music, The Main Stream of Music, A Musician Talks, Essays in Musical Analysis, and Beethoven. ivx Meridian Books edition first published October 1956 First printing September 1956 Second printing June 1957 Third printing July 1958 Fourth printing April 1959 Fifth printing December 1959 Reprinted by arrangement with Oxford University Press Originally published 1944 as Musical Articles from the Encyclopaedia Britannica Library of Congress catalog card number 56-10015 Manufactured in the United States of America EDITORIAL PREFACE THE desire to set down upon paper a comprehensive system of musical education was present in the mind of Donald Tovey for the greater part of his life. In 1896, when he was 21, he wrote in a letter to a friend that he had begun a great work quot on the means of Expression in Music quot If ever I finish the thing, into print it shall go. Thirty years later, he was talking about a series of four text-books on music. But into print neither the one scheme nor the other went the final expression of his ideas on music was never written. It never could be written, because it was never final in the mind of that incessant discoverer in music. Nor was his method of writing that of finality. The nearest point to finality which Tovey ever reached in his expression of a formal philosophy in music is tobe found in the articles on technique and aesthetics of music as he called them himself in the list of his writings supplied to Who s Who which he contributed to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Those articles, written from 1906 onwards for the eleventh edition of the Ency clopaedia, and revised again, almost rewritten, for the fourteenth edition in 1929, were necessarily cast in the imposed form of treatises under word-headings. Yet they coalesce very firmly into a clear and coherent testament, almost into a text-book of the art of music in its widest meaning. Like the Glossary to the Essays in Musical Analysis, the entries are unconnected, the whole comprehensive, and while not attempting completeness, afford the reader a wider range of musical thought and a fuller discussion of technical problems than most of the exhaustive and laborious theses now available. Tovey himself set great store by these articles. They formed for him the basis of his teaching at the University of Edinburgh. They are the background to those fuller considerations of musical compositions which are his Essays in Musical Analysis. It was his own proposal that these articles should be gathered together into one volume, an idea expressed to me as long ago as 1926. Means were then taken towards the end of publishing, and it was agreed that Tovey should in his own time make any alterations or correc tions necessary for the new method of presentation. But many other fresh and no doubt more important ideas and schemes came bubbling up into that wonderfully fertile brain, and nothing was done about the book of musical articles. I say more important because, though he was in life so fully occupied, it has now been foundpossible to publish these articles after the author s death. This book contains all the articles which Tovey wrote for the VI EDITORIAL PREFACE Encyclopaedia Britannica, as they now appear there, with the exception of one on Modern Music and the biographies. The book was set up from printed slips, and thus follows the text finally approved and corrected by the author. The very long musical examples are printed in full...
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