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affairs alliance Allies Alsace attack Austrian battle Bavaria bed of justice Charles chief Choiseul Church claims clergy Colbert command Court Crown dangerous declared defeated defend diplomacy Duke of Orléans Dupleix Dutch Edict Elector Emperor Empire enemy energy England English Eugène Europe European favour fell Fleury force France Frederick French army frontier gained hands Histoire Holland hoped hostility important India influence Italy Jansenist Jesuits King King's Louis XIV Louvois Luxemburg Madame de Maintenon Madame de Pompadour Maria Theresa Marlborough Marshal ment military Minister Monarchy naval navy Netherlands opinion Parlement of Paris peace Philip Pope possessed prestige Prince privileged Protestants provinces Prussia refused reign of Louis religious resistance Revolution Rhine Richelieu royal Savoy seemed side siege soon Spain Spanish struggle success taxation taxes throne treaty troops Turgot Vauban Vendôme victory Villars Voltaire whole William XIV’s
Page 273 - ... many taxes, which often amounted to sixty per cent of his earnings. The government was absolute, but rotten and tottering; the people, oppressively and unjustly governed, were just beginning to be conscious of their condition and to seek the cause of it, while the educated classes were saturated with revolutionary doctrines which not only destroyed their loyalty to the old institutions, but created constant aspirations toward new ones. Thus, when Louis XVI., a mere boy, began to reign, the whole...
Page 19 - ... divine)." His Discourse on Universal History is in some respects the most notable of all his works. It is perhaps the first clear statement of the continuity and unity of History. "Universal History," he writes, "is to the histories of each country and people what a general map is to special maps.
Page 272 - ... of their business ; and secondly the prodigious number of those exempt from taxation, the army of privileged persons who claim to be free from the ordinary taxation of the realm.
Page 66 - ... filled all the realm with perjury and sacrilege, in the midst of the echoed cries of these unfortunate victims of error, while so many others sacrificed their conscience to their wealth and their repose, and purchased both by simulated abjuration, from which without pause they were dragged to adore what they did not believe in, and to receive the divine body of the Saint of Saints...