The Gay Revolution: The Story of the Struggle

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Simon and Schuster, Sep 8, 2015 - History - 794 pages
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“The most comprehensive history to date of America’s gay-rights movement.” —The Economist

A New York Times Notable Book of 2015

The sweeping story of the modern struggle for gay, lesbian, and trans rights—from the 1950s to the present—based on amazing interviews with politicians, military figures, legal activists, and members of the entire LGBT community who face these challenges every day.

The fight for gay, lesbian, and trans civil rights—the years of outrageous injustice, the early battles, the heart-breaking defeats, and the victories beyond the dreams of the gay rights pioneers—is the most important civil rights issue of the present day. Based on rigorous research and more than 150 interviews, The Gay Revolution tells this unfinished story not through dry facts but through dramatic accounts of passionate struggles, with all the sweep, depth, and intricacies only an award-winning activist, scholar, and novelist like Lillian Faderman can evoke.

The Gay Revolution begins in the 1950s, when law classified gays and lesbians as criminals, the psychiatric profession saw them as mentally ill, the churches saw them as sinners, and society victimized them with irrational hatred. Against this dark backdrop, a few brave people began to fight back, paving the way for the revolutionary changes of the 1960s and beyond. Faderman discusses the protests in the 1960s; the counter reaction of the 1970s and early eighties; the decimated but united community during the AIDS epidemic; and the current hurdles for the right to marriage equality.

In the words of the eyewitnesses who were there through the most critical events, The Gay Revolution paints a nuanced portrait of the LGBT civil rights movement. A defining account, this is the most complete and authoritative book of its kind.
 

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LibraryThing Review

User Review  - MichaelC.Oliveira - LibraryThing

A fantastic completion of the stories of ordinary and extraordinary activists that transformed our society. Wonderfully composed into brief chapters and sections that draw you into the period and move you along into the next step of the revolution. Read full review

The Gay Revolution: The Story of the Struggle

User Review  - Publishers Weekly

Faderman (Naked in the Promised Land), a scholar of lesbian history and literature, renders the slow transformation of culture into a sweeping narrative of the American struggle for gay and lesbian ... Read full review

Contents

America Hunts for Witches
13
Toward a HomosexualFree Military
27
America Protects Its Youngsters
40
Mattachine
53
The Daughters
74
Jousts with the Four Horsemen
91
Slivers of Space and Justice
115
Throwing Down the Gauntlet
128
Grappling with Defeat
355
Learning How to Win
366
Of Martyrs and Marches
393
The Plague
415
Family Values
442
New Gays and Lesbians Versus the Old Military
471
Dont Ask Dont Tell Dont Serve
495
Get Dont Ask Dont Tell Done
513

The Homosexual American Citizen Takes the Government
146
The Riots
171
New Gay Politics
188
The Gay Activists Alliance
210
Lesbian Feminists
227
Dressing for Dinner
249
How Gays and Lesbians Stopped Being Crazies
279
The Culture War in Earnest
298
Enter Anita
321
How to Lose a Battle
336
How Lesbians and Gays Stopped Being Sex Criminals
537
The First Law in American History That Begins the Job
552
The Struggle for Workplace Protection
564
WHAT JUSTIFICATION COULD THERE POSSIBLY BE FOR DENYING HOMOSEXUALS
581
Getting It Right and Wrong in the West
594
The Evolution of a President and the Country 610 630
610
Epilogue
630
Acknowledgments
637
Photo Credits
769
Copyright

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About the author (2015)

The Gay Revolution PROLOGUE
On the morning of May 26, 1948, Professor E. K. Johnston was standing at the rostrum in a University of Missouri auditorium. The annual awards ceremony for the School of Journalism was in full swing. Best columnist, best sports writer, best feature writer--each award winner was called up to the stage, where Professor Johnston shook his hand and said kind and appropriate words as he bestowed a trophy of recognition. The professor had been on the University of Missouri faculty since 1924 and was now fifty years old, a man distinguished and comfortable in middle age, dressed formally in a light summer suit, spectacles balanced low on the bridge of his nose.

Professor Johnston had taken a place of honor on that stage because that academic year he''d served as acting dean of the School of Journalism. The elderly permanent dean, Frank Mott, had been on leave, and Professor Johnston was an apt choice as his temporary replacement: E. K. Johnston was a full professor, he was much loved and respected by students and colleagues alike,1 and he had a national reputation as a multiterm president of a professional fraternity for those working in the relatively new discipline of the science of newspaper advertising.2 Indeed, it was assumed by many at the University of Missouri that when the present dean retired, Professor Johnston would be named his permanent successor.

But as Professor Johnston was fulfilling his academic duties by shaking hands and wishing the aspiring young journalists continued success, he knew there was a warrant out for his arrest, issued by the county prosecutor.3 He suspected too that the charge against him was commission of sodomy. But for the moment, he wanted only to get through the awards ceremony--to fulfill his last duty of the academic year to the students in his charge--and he did.

When the ceremony was over, Professor Johnston drove himself downtown, walked into the county prosecutor''s office, and gave himself up. At his arraignment, he pleaded innocent. Thrown into the Boone County jail until he could raise bail, he spent two days behind bars.4

The county prosecutor, Howard Lang, had started the investigation six months earlier. There''d been a robbery, and a man was apprehended and brought in for questioning. It was he, Prosecutor Lang told the newspapers, who talked about a "homosexual ring" there in Columbia, Missouri, that carried on sex orgies. As happened often during police interrogations of homosexuals in the mid-twentieth century, police detectives grilled the robber until he named names. One of the names was Willie Coots, a thirty-nine-year-old gift shop employee. Coots was then brought in and was made to name more names. Each man that Willie Coots named was dragged in for questioning and grilled. A police department secretary took down in shorthand what each arrestee said, and she compiled a list of thirty names.5

Of all the men Coots named, the most interesting to the Columbia police, because of his prominence, was Professor E. K. Johnston. Coots confessed that he and the professor had lived together for ten years as lovers and for the last six years as friends. The police wanted more facts. Had he and Johnston held homosexual parties in their shared apartment? Yes, they had. More names; other homosexuals who''d had illegal congress with Johnston. Yes, he did remember some: just a few days earlier, there was a man named Warren Heathman. Heathman was a thirty-five-year-old World War II veteran who had fought overseas; he''d earned a master''s degree in agriculture from the University of Missouri and was now an instructor for the Veterans Administration''s farm training program.

Heathman could not be found at his home address, so the Columbia police sent out an all-points bulletin for his arrest. He was picked up by state highway patrolmen in Rolla, Missouri, about two hours away, and locked up overnight in Jefferson City''s Cole County Jail. In the morning, patrolmen shackled him and drove him to the jail in Columbia, and he too was grilled. This was serious business, they told him. Perjury is a felony for which he could be incarcerated for five years. Willie Coots had mentioned a big fish: a professor at the university. Did Heathman know E. K. Johnston? When had he last seen him? Where?

Heathman, disoriented and scared, did not take long to answer every question they threw at him. Yes, he and Johnston engaged in homosexual activities. Yes, on an average of every other week. Yes, usually in Johnston''s apartment. Yes, he''d been to homosexual parties not only in that same apartment but also at a cabin near Salem, Missouri. ("Mad parties of a homosexual cabal," the newspapers would report.6) Just as Willie Coots had done, Heathman signed a statement implicating Johnston as the leader of the "homosexual ring."

Heathman and Coots both waived their preliminary hearings; they did not want to drag out their ordeal. Because neither one was the supposed kingpin of the "homosexual ring," their bail was set at $2,500 apiece, $1,000 lower than Johnston''s.7 The professor, however, was not as easily intimidated. He had gone himself to the police station and demanded to know why there was a warrant out for his arrest. When police detectives took him into a room to interrogate him, he knew his rights. He would say nothing to his inquisitors except "I want to talk to my lawyer." He was permitted to call his attorney, Edwin Orr, who advised him not to sign any statement and not to waive his preliminary hearing.

From the Boone County Jail, he contacted his half brother in Kansas City, and a friend in Sedalia, Missouri, and borrowed money for the $3,500 bond.8 In their coverage of the story, local newspapers were sure to name both Howard Johnston, the brother, and Fred Hildebrandt, the friend, shaming them for having aided and abetted a homosexual.

Family newspapers within a thousand-mile radius of Columbia all seemed to pick up the story, which was covered by the wire services of the Associated Press as well as the United Press International. The local papers embellished their articles with sensational headlines. "Missouri Professor Held for Sodomy: Termed Principal in Homosexual Ring" was the Pottstown (PA) Mercury headline.9 The headline in Arkansas''s Hope Star was simply "Homosexual," which was shocking enough all by itself in 1948.10

It was not until his temporary release from jail that Johnston learned that he''d been found guilty even before he was tried. "In view of the nature and gravity of the charges that have been made against Professor E. K. Johnston," the president of the university, Frederick Middlebush, told reporters, "he has been relieved of his duties as a member of the university."11 Hysteria spread. The superintendent of the State Highway Patrol, Colonel Hugh Waggoner, announced not only to the university''s board of curators but also to the media that Johnston was only the tip of the iceberg.12

The board of curators panicked. Allen McReynolds, its president, immediately called a press conference to promise the public, "The board will take such action as it deems necessary to protect the interests of the university." McReynolds added defensively that homosexuals were "a public problem, and one that ought to be solved."13 Missouri''s governor, Phil Donnelly, weighed in, assuring Missourians that he had ordered the president of the board of curators to confer with State Highway Patrol officials about the homosexuals they''d discovered and to make sure such people had no place on the university''s faculty or among the student body.14

On November 17 Johnston stood before Judge W. M. Dinwiddie of the Boone County Circuit Court. Johnston''s lawyer, Edwin Orr, had advised him that the prosecutor held in his hands multiple signed statements. He must throw himself at the mercy of the court. Johnston must have struggled to resign himself to this: How could he relinquish into perpetuity the image of the man he once was? How could he claim as his the character of a criminal? Orr promised that he would call witnesses who would talk about Johnston''s good character and plead for clemency. The witnesses would tell the judge there was no point in sending a man like Johnston to jail. The ex-professor was by now emotionally and physically exhausted. He''d lost his job, his good name, his beloved students, his entire career--even his pension. He was fifty years old. What would he live on for the rest of his life? He had no more fight left in him. And if he did not confess to the world of being guilty of sodomy and then throw himself at Judge Dinwiddie''s mercy, he would be locked in jail for who knew how many years to come.

Johnston pleaded guilty and did not open his mouth again for the rest of the trial. The principal witness for the defense was Dr. Edward Gildea, head of the Department of Psychiatry at Was

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