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advanced forts Allied Alsace ammunition arms army corps artillery Austria battalions batteries battle line brigade carried cavalry divisions centre close order colours columns concentration detachment district drill eastern enemy enemy's England espionage field armies fighting line firing line flank attack flank movement force formed fortifications four France French army front German army German empire German methods German military German Staff Gneisenau headquarters heavy higher command home defence howitzer infantry invasion Landsturm Landwehr large number levy line army line of defence manoeuvres maps mass ment Metz millions mobilisation Moltke mounted Namur Napoleon Napoleon III neutral country old Prussian operations organised plans of campaign position present province of Posen Prussian army railway system recognised recruits regiments reorganisation requisition reserve corps reservists result Rhine rifle river Sadowa Scharnhorst shell soldiers squadrons supplies territorial army tion troops victory Vistula weapons western frontier writers
Page 16 - ... their training, and found themselves under a colonel and a general whom they had often seen at the head of the troops at local reviews and route marches. The ideal of the whole organisation was that the nation should be ready in the event of war to bring its whole manhood into the field. But during the first half of the nineteenth century this ideal was far from being realised. The armies of all the powers of the Continent were kept at a figure far below that of the later years of the century,...
Page 29 - At the age of twenty-seven, the German soldier passed out of the first line army. Then until the age of thirty-nine, he belonged to the second line army, or Landwehr. Originally a territorial army of home defence force, the Landwehr is liable to be called out for service beyond the frontiers, either in the actual fighting line, or for the work of guarding the lines of communication and supplying garrisons to captured fortresses.
Page 34 - After leaving the army numbers of officers keep their names on the reserve list for the first line or are posted to units of the Landwehr or Landsturm. Staff officers belong to a special class trained for staff duties, and usually serving with a regiment only for the purpose of obtaining practical experience of the working of this or that special arm of the service. In Prussia and all the German states there...
Page 105 - In recent years a considerable amount of work has been done to determine the electrical properties of high vacuum.
Page 28 - The first great increase of the German army was made by the new military law of 1880. The preamble of the law set forth that the military reforms introduced into neighbouring states made an expansion of the army necessary. " Germany, with an immense frontier, which is also that of three great and four smaller powers, must be ever ready to defend her freedom and security.
Page 34 - At the end of the year they would have to satisfy the military authorities that they had so far profited by their training as to be capable of doing the work of a noncommissioned officer or a company officer. They then passed into the reserve, thus, under the old system, saving two years of service with the colours, and returned to their professional work. This class supplies a reserve of non-commissioned officers and officers for the first line army and the Landwchr.
Page 38 - ... be done. There was thus the widest room for initiative, and in the higher commands the principle was everywhere accepted that whatever orders had been given, once fighting began the troops engaged must be supported at all costs by all those who were in reach of the scene of action. In such a system of command, there is nothing rigid and initiative is a necessity.
Page 13 - After the downfall of Napoleon, it was Gneisenau who carried on and perpetuated Scharnhorst's work of reorganisation. A third great soldier, Clausewitz, who had fought in the Prussian and Russian armies in most of the campaigns of the Revolution and the Empire from Valmy to Waterloo, gave the Prussian army, in his writings, a practical theory of war on which it has acted ever since. Clausewitz was one of the first professors of the school of war founded by Scharnhorst in 1810 for the higher training...