The Global Cybercrime Industry: Economic, Institutional and Strategic Perspectives
The Internet’s rapid diffusion and digitization of economic activities have led to the emergence of a new breed of criminals. Economic, political, and social impacts impacts of these cyber-criminals’ activities have received considerable attention in recent years. Individuals, businesses, and governments rightfully worry about the security of their systems, networks, and IT infrastructures. Looking at the patterns of cybercrimes, it is apparent that many underlying assumptions about crimes are ?awed, unrealistic, and implausible to explain this new form of criminality. The empirical records regarding crime patterns and stra- gies to avoid and ?ght crimes run counter to the functioning of the cyberworld. The ?elds of hacking and cybercrime have also undergone political, social, and psychological metamorphosis. The cybercrime industry is a comparatively young area of inquiry. While there has been an agreement that the global cybercrime industry is tremendously huge, little is known about its exact size and structure. Very few published studies have examined economic and institutional factors that in?uence strategies and behaviors of various actors associated with the cybercrime industry. Theorists are also debating as to the best way to comprehend the actions of cyber criminals and hackers and the symbiotic relationships they have with various players.
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2 Simple Economics of Cybercrime and the Vicious Circle
3 An Institutional Perspective on Cybercrimes
4 Increasing Returns and Externality in Cybercrimes
5 Institutional Field Evolved Around Cybercrimes
6 Information and Communications Technologies Cyberattacks and Strategic Asymmetry
7 Global Heterogeneity in the Pattern of the Cybercrime Industry
8 Structure of Cybercrime in Developing Economies
9 Institutional and Economic Foundations of Cybercrime Business Models
10 The Global Click Fraud Industry
11 Concluding Remarks and Implications
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Accessed 27 October activities advertisers adware anti-cybercrime argue associated attacks behavior botnet business models Chap China Chinese click fraud cognitive companies computer crime consumers conventional crimes credit card criminal cyber crime cyber-criminals cyber-terrorism cyber-wars cyberattacks cybercrime laws cybercrime victim cybercrime-related cybersecurity cyberspace cyberwarfare deal with cybercrimes developing countries developing economies e-commerce e-mail eBay economic electronic enforcement estimate suggested external factors fight cybercrimes fraudsters Global Cybercrime Industry hackers hacking ICTs identity theft increased India Indonesian instance Internet users intrinsic motivation Journal Kshetri lack law-enforcement agencies legitimacy Likewise malware mechanisms million NASSCOM negative asymmetries networks norms noted organizational organized crime organized crime groups phishing police political Prior research regulative institutions related to cybercrimes reported Review Romania Russian Russian Mafia September social stigma strategic Symantec target terrorist threats United USA Today vulnerabilities websites