The History of Nicaragua
Speaking of his upbringing, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega once said, "We were anti-Coca-Cola, anti-comic book, against everything good and bad represented by the United States, except baseball." Since taking office in January 2007, Ortega has continued to reject both capitalism and the United States, which he refers to as the imperial power.
Notwithstanding Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega's disdain for the United States, our nation has played a significant role in shaping Nicaraguan nationalism, as well as the country's political, economic, and social systems. The History of Nicaragua was written, in part, to help students and other interested readers understand that relationship, providing them with an up-to-date, concise, and analytical history of the Central American nation.
The book begins by describing the people, geography, culture, and current political, economic, and social systems of Nicaragua. The remainder of the volume is devoted to a chronological history, emphasizing recurring themes or factors that have shaped the modern state. These include the importance of elite families such as the Somoza dynasty that ruled for more than 40 years. Other topics include the agro-export model of economic development, modern Nicaraguan nationalism, the Sandinista revolution and its legacy, and the democratic transition that began in 1990.
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1 Nicaragua and Its People
2 Precolonial Colonial and Early Independence 4000 BC1856
3 The Coffee Boom Zelaya and United States Intervention 18561925
4 Sandino and the Rise of the Somoza Dynasty 19251959
5 The Sandinistas and the Fall of the Somoza Dynasty 19591979
6 The Revolutionary Years 19791990
agricultural Alem American areas army Barrios became began Blueﬁelds Bola~nos Boland Amendment Borge British canal Cardenal Caribbean Central America Chinandega Church coffee conﬁscated Congress continuismo contras Costa Rica country’s cross-isthmus Daniel Ortega Democracy democratic dollars economic El Salvador elections Ernesto Cardenal export ﬁnally ﬁrst ﬁve ﬂed Fonseca forces FSLN Granada groups growing guerrilla History Honduras Humberto Ortega Ibid indigenous inﬂuence Joaqu ın Chamorro Kinzer Lacayo Lake Nicaragua land leaders Luis Somoza major Managua Matagalpa military Miskito Mosquito Coast National Assembly National Guard Nicara Nicas nistas Obando ofﬁce ofﬁcials opposition organized Paciﬁc Ocean Panama peasants Pedro Joaqu ın percent policies political Prensa President Reagan reforms revolution revolutionary rural Sacasa Salvador Sandinistas Sandino signiﬁcant Somoza dynasty Somoza family Spanish Supreme Electoral Council Tachito Somoza tion trade U.S. Marines Union United University urban Violeta vote Walker Zelaya