The Ideology of Kokugo: Nationalizing Language in Modern Japan

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University of Hawaii Press, 2010 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 262 pages
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Available for the first time in English, The Ideology of Kokugo: Nationalizing Language in Modern Japan (1996) is Lee Yeounsuk s award-winning look at the history and ideology behind the construction of kokugo (national language). Prior to the Meiji Period (1868 1912), the idea of a single, unified Japanese language did not exist. Only as Japan was establishing itself as a modern nation-state and an empire with expanding colonies did there arise the need for a national language to construct and sustain its national identity.

Re-examining debates and controversies over genbun itchi (unification of written and spoken languages) and other language reform movements, Lee discusses the contributions of Ueda Kazutoshi (1867 1937) and Hoshina Koichi (1872 1955) in the creation of kokugo and moves us one step closer to understanding how the ideology of kokugo cast a spell over linguistic identity in modern Japan. She examines the notion of the unshakable homogeneity of the Japanese language a belief born of the political climate of early-twentieth-century Japan and its colonization of other East Asian countries urging us to pay attention to the linguistic consciousness that underlies scientific scholarship and language policies. Her critical discussion of the construction of kokugo uncovers a strain of cultural nationalism that has been long nurtured in Japan s education system and academic traditions. The ideology of kokugo, argues Lee, must be recognized both as an academic apparatus and a political concept.

The Ideology of Kokugo was the first work to explore Japan s linguistic consciousness at the dawn of its modernization. It will therefore be of interest to not only linguists, but also historians, anthropologists, political scientists, and scholars in the fields of education and cultural studies.

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Contents

Language and the Imagined Community
1
The Japanese Language before Kokugo Views of Mori Arinori and Baba Tatsui
7
Kokugo Issues in Early Meiji
21
Ueda Kazutoshi and His Ideas about Language
71
Kokugogaku and Linguistics
115
Hoshina Koichi and His Language Policies
153
Chronology
217
Notes
227
Bibliography
245
Index
259
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