The Internationalization of United States Franchizing Systems
Conflicting Identities and Multiple Masculinitiestakes as its focus the construction of masculinity in Western Europe from the early Middle Ages until the fifteenth century, crossing from pre-Christian Scandinavia across western Christendom. The essays consult a broad and representative cross section of sources including the work of theological, scholastic, and monastic writers, sagas, hagiography and memoirs, material culture, chronicles, examplaand vernacular literature, sumptuary legislation, and the records of ecclesiastical courts. The studies address questions of what constituted male identity, and male sexuality. How was masculinity constructed in different social groups? How did the secular and ecclesiastical ideals of masculinity reinforce each other or diverge? These essays address the topic of medieval men and, through a variety of theoretical, methodological, and disciplinary approaches, significantly extend our understanding of how, in the Middle Ages, masculinity and identity were conflicted and multifarious.
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age variable agency theory Arthur Andersen l996 Aydin and Kacker Burton and Cross Castrogiovanni l994 chapter chi-squared test coefficients Combs and Castrogiovanni Control Variables Dandridge l992 decision to internationalize Descriptive Statistics developed domestic franchising Entrepreneur Magazine explain the internationalization explanation of international Fladmoe-Lindquist l996 foreign direct investment franchise fee franchising firms franchising system franchisors to internationalize global growth rate Hackett l976 heteroskedasticity host country hotel and motel Huszagh hypotheses includes independent variables industry internationalize international expansion international franchising expansion internationalization of franchising Justis and Judd Kacker l990 Kostecka l988 logistic regression logistical model Marks & Spencer monitoring capabilities Noyelle and Dutka organizational factors percent positively related price bonding variable price structure professional business services quasi-rents relationship resource-based and agency Resource-Based Theory retailing sector royalties seek international franchisees service sector Shane l996b significant start-up costs three industries U.S. FRANCHISING SYSTEMS Vardiabasis l987 Welch Yavas and Vardiabasis