The Invention of International Relations Theory: Realism, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the 1954 Conference on Theory

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Nicolas Guilhot
Columbia University Press, 2011 - Political Science - 299 pages
The 1954 Conference on Theory, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, featured a who's who of scholars and practitioners debating the foundations of international relations theory. Assembling his own team of experts, all of whom have struggled with this legacy, Nicolas Guilhot revisits a seminal event and its odd rejection of scientific rationalism.

Far from being a spontaneous development, these essays argue, the emergence of a "realist" approach to international politics, later codified at the conference, was deliberately triggered by the Rockefeller Foundation. The organization was an early advocate of scholars who opposed the idea of a "science" of politics, pursuing, for the sake of disciplinary autonomy, a vision of politics as a prerational and existential dimension that could not be "solved" by scientific means. As a result, this nascent theory was more a rejection of behavioral social science than the birth of one of its specialized branches. The archived conversations reproduced here, along with unpublished papers by Hans Morgenthau, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Paul Nitze, speak to this defensive stance. International relations theory is critically linked to the context of postwar liberalism, and the contributors explore how these origins have played out in political thought and American foreign policy.
 

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Contents

Reflections on the 1954 Conference
33
1954 and After
54
The Rockefeller Foundation Conference and the Long Road
79
The Move That Made
97
Postwar American Political Science
128
Realism as Desire
162
American Hegemony the Rockefeller Foundation and the Rise
182
From Reactionary Modernism
210
Conference on International Politics May 78 1954
239
The Theoretical and Practical Importance
263
The Implications of Theory for Practice
277
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About the author (2011)

Nicolas Guilhot is senior research associate at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the author of The Democracy Makers: Human Rights and the Politics of Global Order.

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