The Invention of Religion in Japan

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University of Chicago Press, Oct 3, 2012 - Religion - 404 pages
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Throughout its long history, Japan had no concept of what we call “religion.” There was no corresponding Japanese word, nor anything close to its meaning. But when American warships appeared off the coast of Japan in 1853 and forced the Japanese government to sign treaties demanding, among other things, freedom of religion, the country had to contend with this Western idea. In this book, Jason Ananda Josephson reveals how Japanese officials invented religion in Japan and traces the sweeping intellectual, legal, and cultural changes that followed.   More than a tale of oppression or hegemony, Josephson’s account demonstrates that the process of articulating religion offered the Japanese state a valuable opportunity. In addition to carving out space for belief in Christianity and certain forms of Buddhism, Japanese officials excluded Shinto from the category. Instead, they enshrined it as a national ideology while relegating the popular practices of indigenous shamans and female mediums to the category of “superstitions”—and thus beyond the sphere of tolerance. Josephson argues that the invention of religion in Japan was a politically charged, boundary-drawing exercise that not only extensively reclassified the inherited materials of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Shinto to lasting effect, but also reshaped, in subtle but significant ways, our own formulation of the concept of religion today. This ambitious and wide-ranging book contributes an important perspective to broader debates on the nature of religion, the secular, science, and superstition.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
Organizing Difference in Premodern Japan
22
2 Heretical Anthropology
43
3 The Arrival of Religion
71
4 The Science of the Gods
94
5 Formations of the Shinto Secular
132
6 Taming Demons
164
7 Inventing Japanese Religion
192
8 Religion within the Limits
224
Conclusion
251
Religion Explained
263
Notes
265
Character Glossary
331
References
345
Index
381
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About the author (2012)

Jason Ananda Josephson is associate professor in and chair of the Department of Religion at Williams College. He is the author of The Myth of Disenchantment: Magic, Modernity, and the Birth of the Human Sciences, also published by the University of Chicago Press.

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