The Lancet Handbook of Essential Concepts in Clinical Research
The needs of clinicians predominate throughout the text, but these needs overlap with those of researchers especially in chapters covering randomized controlled trials. For readers to assess trials accurately they need to understand relevant guidelines on the conduct of trials that are emerging from methodological research. In presenting these discussions to clinicians these chapters will help researchers who also do randomized trials and provide a methodological background that enhances the quality and quantity of their research productivity.
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2nd edn adjustments for multiplicity allocation concealment allocation sequence Altman DG antibiotic approach assessment association baseline biases block size breast cancer case—control study Chalmers clinical research clinical trials clinicians cohort study comparison groups confidence intervals confounding CONSORT statement Control Clin Trials control group criteria descriptive studies diagnosis disease double blind drug Epidemiol epidemiology estimate event rate example Grimes group sizes implementation important information bias interim analyses Intern intervention intrauterine device JAMA Lancet likelihood ratios loss to follow-up measures methodological methods Moher monitoring myocardial infarction non-double-blinded observational studies ObstetGynecol odds ratio oral contraceptives ovarian cancer Panel participants patients permuted-block placebo population potential predictive value pretest probability protocol random randomised controlled trials randomised trials readers relative risk restricted randomisation Sackett DL salpingitis sample size calculations Schulz KF screening selection bias simple randomisation statistical subgroup analyses treatment effect treatment group unpredictability validity women yield