Four Laws That Drive the Universe
The laws of thermodynamics drive everything that happens in the universe. From the sudden expansion of a cloud of gas to the cooling of hot metal, and from the unfurling of a leaf to the course of life itself - everything is directed and constrained by four simple laws. They establish fundamental concepts such as temperature and heat, and reveal the arrow of time and even the nature of energy itself. Peter Atkins' powerful and compelling introduction explains what the laws are and how they work, using accessible language and virtually no mathematics. Guiding the reader from the Zeroth Law to the Third Law, he introduces the fascinating concept of entropy, and how it not only explains why your desk tends to get messier, but also how its unstoppable rise constitutes the engine of the universe.
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Chapter 2The first law The conservation of energy
Chapter 3The second law The increase in entropy
Chapter 4Free energy The availability of work
Chapter 5The third law The unattainability of zero
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absolute zero achieve adiabatic adiabatic demagnetization amount atoms Boltzmann distribution Boltzmann’s constant calculate Carnot change in entropy change in internal classical thermodynamics Clausius statements coefficient of performance cold sink combustion concept constant temperature constant volume corresponding decrease diathermic difference disorder efficiency electric electrons energy as heat energy levels energy released enthalpy everyday expansion expression external pressure flow Gibbs energy heat capacity heat engine heat pump heater Helmholtz energy higher energy hot source increase in entropy infinitesimally instance internal energy introduce joules Kelvin Kelvin’s statement law of thermodynamics liquid low temperatures lower measure mechanical equilibrium molecular interpretation molecules motion negative temperature observations piston populations reactants reaction refrigerator residual entropy reversible sample scale second law Short Introduction solid spins spontaneous change steam engine substance surroundings thermal equilibrium Thermodynamicists third law total energy total entropy transfer of energy transferred as heat universe vapour weight zeroth law