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actual reality ad hoc signs Adamic language animal assume assumptions audience autonomous text Benjamin Lee Whorf called chapter characterization completely motivated component conceptual elements conceptual event conceptual world concerned consider constructed realities construction of reality conventional signs conventionalized culture deﬁned deﬁnition different languages difﬁcult discourse discussion English example experience fact ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁt ﬁxed George Lakoff grammatical he/she his/her hoc signs individual inﬂuence interpretation intertranslatability postulate inventory involved kind knowledge linguistic competence linguistic expression linguistic repertoire mapping view meaning metaphor nature of language objects one’s ontology paraphrastic translation possible purposes quasi-isomorphic question real-world situations reality-construction view recognize refer reﬂect relation represented require role sayer scientiﬁc seems semantic sense sensory sentence signans signantia signatum speaker species speciﬁc speech act statement subject matter subject-matter views sufﬁcient suggest syntactic talking about things thought tion translation equivalents truth-conditional semantics understanding unmotivated view of language vocabulary Whorf word
Page 103 - If language is to be a means of communication there must be agreement not only in definitions but also (queer as this may sound) in judgments.
Page 124 - time' and 'matter' are not given in substantially the same form by experience to all men but depend upon the nature of the language or languages through the use of which they have been developed. They do not depend so much upon ANY ONE SYSTEM (eg, tense, or nouns) within the grammar as upon the ways of analyzing and reporting experience which have become fixed in the language as integrated 'fashions of speaking...
Page 10 - So imperceptibly does physiological function pass into pathological function throughout the organism, that it is impossible to say where one ends and the other begins...
Page 91 - The affordances of the environment are what it offers the animal, what it provides or furnishes, either for good or ill.
Page 15 - To put this matter of the formal completeness of speech in somewhat different words, we may say that a language is so constructed that no matter what any speaker of it may desire to communicate, no matter how original or bizarre his idea or his fancy, the language is prepared to do his work.
Page 69 - Translation between languages as close as Frisian and English is aided by resemblance of cognate word forms. Translation between unrelated languages, eg, Hungarian and English, may be aided by traditional equations that have evolved in step with a shared culture.
Page 14 - the vulgate of Eden contained.. .a divine syntax - powers of statement and designation analogous to God's own diction, in which the mere naming of a thing was the necessary and sufficient cause of its leap into reality...There was a complete, point-to-point mapping of language onto the true substance and shape of things.
Page 124 - Languages differ not so much as to what can be said in them, but rather as to what it is relatively easy to say in them. The history of Western logic and science constitutes not so much the story of scholars hemmed in and misled by the nature of their specific languages, as the story of a long and fairly successful struggle against inherited linguistic limitations.
Page 124 - time" and "matter" are not given in substantially the same form by experience to all men but depend upon the nature of the language or languages through the use of which they have been developed. They do not depend so much upon any one system (eg, tense, or nouns) within the grammar as upon the ways of analyzing and reporting experience which have become fixed in the language as integrated "fashions of speaking" and which cut across the typical grammatical classifications, so that such a "fashion"...