The Logic of Scientific DiscoveryDescribed by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as postwar philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day. 
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LibraryThing Review
User Review  lawecon  LibraryThingThis volume was intended as a response to the Logical Positivists of the Vienna Circle. In the simplest terms, the Vienna Circle and their counterparts in England believed that if one could create an ... Read full review
LibraryThing Review
User Review  epeeist  LibraryThingThe book for all students of science and the philosophy of science. Read full review
Contents
Causality Explanation and the Deduction of Predictions  12 
Strict and Numerical Universality  13 
Universal Concepts and Individual Concepts  14 
Strictly Universal and Existential Statements  15 
Theoretical Systems  16 
On the Problem of a Theory of Scientific Method  27 
Logical Ranges Notes on the Theory of Measurement  37 
Some Possibilities of Interpreting a System of Axioms  51 
Infinite Sequences Hypothetical Estimates of Frequency  154 
An Examination of the Axiom of Randomness  159 
ChanceLike Sequences Objective Probability  163 
6o Bernoullis Problem  164 
The Law of Great Numbers Bernoullis Theorem  168 
Bernoullis Theorem and the Interpretation of Probability Statements  171 
of the Fundamental Problem of the Theory of Chance  176 
The Problem of Decidability  181 
Levels of Universality The Modus Tollens  54 
Falsifiability  57 
2O Methodological Rules  61 
Logical Investigation of Falsifiability 22 Falsifiability and Falsification  66 
Occurrences and Events  68 
Falsifiability and Consistency  72 
The Problem of the Empirical Basis  74 
Concerning the SoCalled Protocol Sentences  76 
The Objectivity of the Empirical Basis  79 
Basic Statements  82 
The Relativity of Basic Statements Resolution  86 
Friess Trilemma  87 
3o Theory and Experiment  88 
Degrees of Testability  95 
How are Classes of Potential Falsifiers to be Compared?  97 
Degrees of Falsifiability Compared by Means of the Subclass Relation  98 
The Structure of the Subclass Relation Logical Probability  100 
Empirical Content Entailment and Degrees of Falsifiability  103 
Levels of Universality and Degrees of Precision  105 
Degrees of Testability Compared by Reference to Dimensions  110 
The Dimension of a Set of Curves  115 
Two Ways of Reducing the Number of Dimensions of a Set of Curves  116 
Simplicity  121 
Elimination of the Aesthetic and the Pragmatic Concepts of Simplicity 42 The Methodological Problem of Simplicity  122 
Simplicity and Degree of Falsifiability  126 
Geometrical Shape and Functional Form  128 
The Simplicity of Euclidean Geometry  129 
Probability  133 
The Problem of Interpreting Probability Statements  134 
Subjective and Objective Interpretations  135 
The Fundamental Problem of the Theory of Chance  138 
The Frequency Theory of von Mises  139 
Plan for a New Theory of Probability  141 
Relative Frequency within a Finite Class  143 
Selection Independence Insensitiveness Irrelevance  145 
Finite Sequences Ordinal Selection and Neighbourhood Selection  147 
nFreedom in Finite Sequences  148 
Sequences of Segments The First Form of the Binomial Formula  152 
The Logical Form of Probability Statements  183 
A Probabilistic System of Speculative Metaphysics  188 
Probability in Physics  190 
Law and Chance  198 
The Deducibility of Macro Laws from Micro Laws  200 
Formally Singular Probability Statements  202 
The Theory of Range  204 
Some Observations on Quantum Theory  209 
Heisenbergs Programme and the Uncertainty Relations 74 A Brief Outline of the Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Theory  211 
A Statistical ReInterpretation of the Uncertainty Formulae  218 
An Attempt to Eliminate Metaphysical Elements by Inverting Heisenbergs Programme with Applications  224 
Decisive Experiments  232 
Indeterminist Metaphysics  243 
Corroboration or How a Theory Stands up to Tests  248 
Concerning the SoCalled Verification of Hypotheses  249 
Criticism of Probability Logic  252 
Inductive Logic and Probability Logic  261 
How a Hypothesis may Prove its Mettle  264 
Corroborability Testability and Logical Probability  268 
Remarks Concerning the Use of the Concepts True and Corroborated  273 
The Path of Science  276 
APPENDICES  281 
Definition of the Dimension of a Theory  283 
The General Calculus of Frequency in Finite Classes  286 
Formula  290 
Examination of an Objection The TwoSlit  297 
Remarks Concerning an Imaginary Experiment  305 
i Two Notes on Induction and Demarcation  312 
ii A Note on Probability 1938  319 
iii On the Heuristic Use of the Classical Definition  325 
vii Zero Probability and the FineStructure  374 
viii Content Simplicity and Dimension  392 
Statistical Tests  402 
x Universals Dispositions and Natural  440 
xi On the Use and Misuse of Imaginary  464 
xii The Experiment of Einstein Podolsky and Rosen  481 
489  
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accepted according appendix application argument assertion assume assumption atomic atomic statements basic statements believe Bernoulli's theorem binomial formula calculus called Carnap cf section chancelike concept contradict conventionalist criterion of demarcation criticism deduced defined definition degree of corroboration degree of falsifiability derived discussed Einstein elements empirical science epistemology Erkenntnis example existential statement fact finite formal formula frequency theory given Heisenberg hypothesis idea imaginary experiment inductive logic inductivist infinite initial conditions interpretation knowledge logical probability mathematical means measure ments metaphysical method methodological momentum natural laws objective observation occurrence particle philosophy physical position possible Postscript postulate potential falsifiers precision predictions prob probability statements problem of demarcation problem of induction protocol sentences quantum theory question random refuted regarded relative frequencies result rule satisfied Schlick selection sense sequence simplicity singular existential statement singular statements statistical tautology testable tests theoretical system tion universal names universal statements words