The Logical Syntax of Language

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Open Court Publishing, 1937 - Philosophy - 352 pages
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Available for the first time in 20 years, here is the Rudolf Carnap's famous ?principle of tolerance” by which everyone is free to mix and match the rules of language and logic. In The Logical Syntax of Language, Carnap explains how his entire theory of language structure came to him like a vision when he was ill. He postulates that concepts of the theory of logic are purely syntactical and therefore can be formulated in logical syntax.
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTION 1 What is Logical Syntax? o I
1
Languages as Calculi s o
4
THE DEFINITE LANGUAGE I
11
PAGE
15
4 Syntactical Gothic Symbols o s I5 5 The Junction Symbols s
18
6 Universal and Existential Sentences o
21
7 The KOperator s
22
8 The Definitions
23
41 On Syntactical Designations o s I53 42 On the Necessity of Distinguishing between an Expression and its Designation s
156
43 On the Admissibility of Indefinite Terms
160
44 On the Admissibility of Impredicative Terms
162
45 Indefinite Terms in Syntax
165
B THE SYNTAx OF ANY LANGUAGE a General Considerations 46 Formation Rules
167
47 Transformation Rules dTerms
171
48 cTerms
172
49 Content s
175

9 Sentences and Numerical Expressions o s
25
B RULES OF TRANSFORMATION FOR LANGUAGE I
27
The Primitive Sentences of Language I
29
The Rules of Inference of Language I
32
Derivations and Proofs in Language I s
33
35 Syntactical Sentences which Refer to Themselves
35
36 Irresoluble Sentences
36
Rules of Consequence for Language I
37
REMARKS ON THE DEFINITE FORM OF LANGUAGE 15 Definite and Indefinite s e s
44
On Intuitionism s
46
a Identity s
49
The Principle of Tolerance in Syntax o 5 I
51
THE FORMAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE SYNTAX OF LANGUAGE I
53
The Arithmetization of Syntax s
54
20 General Terms s s s
58
THE INDEFINITE LANGUAGE II
83
B RULES OF TRANSFORMATION FOR LANGUAGE II
90
RULES OF CONSEQUENCE FOR LANGUAGE II
98
FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE II
134
37 Predicates as ClassSymbols
135
The Elimination of Classes
136
a On Existence Assumptions in Logic
140
38b Cardinal Numbers
142
38c Descriptions
144
39 Real Numbers
149
40 The Language of Physics
151
GENERAL SYNTAX A OBJECTLANGUAGE AND SYNTAxLANGUAGE
153
Logical and Descriptive Expressions SubLan guage 8
177
Logical and Physical Rules d
180
52 LTerms Analytic and Contradictory
182
b Variables 53 Systems of Levels Predicates and Functors
186
54 Substitution Variables and Constants
189
55 Universal and Existential Operators
196
Range
199
57 Sentential Junctions s
201
c Arithmetic NonContradictoriness the Antinomies
205
a The Antinomies 2 II
212
d Translation and Interpretation
222
e Extensionality
233
65 Extensionality in Relation to Partial Sentences
240
Intensional Sentences of the Autonymous Mode
247
70 The QuasiSyntactical and the Syntactical Methods
256
71 b Syntactical Terms of Relational Theory
262
e The Axiomatic Method o
271
PHILOSOPHY AND SYNTAX
277
74 PseudoObjectSentences
284
76 Universal Words s s
292
78 Confusion in Philosophy Caused by the Material
298
80 The Dangers of the Material Mode of Speech
308
B THE LOGIC OF SCIENCE AS SYNTAX
315
Special Sciences
328
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND INDEx OF AUTHORS
334
INDEx OF SUBJECTs
347
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About the author (1937)

Born in Ronsdorf, Germany, Rudolf Carnap studied at the Universities of Freiburg and Jena from 1910 to 1914. He received his doctorate from Jena, where he had studied under Gottlob Frege, who, along with Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell profoundly influenced his thought. In 1926, on the invitation of Morris Schlick, he joined the faculty of the University of Vienna. An active participant in the discussions of the Vienna Circle, he soon rose to eminence in the movement of logical positivism, or logical empiricism. From Vienna he went to Prague, and in 1930 he founded, with Hans Reichenbach in Berlin, the journal Erkenntnis, the main organ for the publications of the logical positivists and empiricists. In 1935, with the rise of Nazism, he moved to the United States, where he occupied teaching and research positions at the University of Chicago, Columbia University, the University of Illinois, and the University of California in Los Angeles. When he died, he was the most famous of the logical empiricists. Camap's book, The Logical Structure of the World (1928), established the basic project of logical empiricism. Carnap sought to demonstrate that, by the method of construction from elementary experiences, all the objects in the world that were also objects of knowledge could be attained. As a consequence, unless a statement could be validated either by rules of logic or by experimental testing in experience, it could be dismissed as devoid of knowledge. He thus proceeded to dismiss most of traditional philosophy and metaphysics as consisting of pseudo-problems. Carnap maintained that the genuine task of philosophy was the logical analysis of the language of science. In The Logical Syntax of Language (1934), he introduced basic distinctions, such as object-language and meta-language, formal mode and material mode of expression, that were to be widely accepted in philosophy. However, neither his symbolism nor his restriction of philosophy to the logical analysis of syntax---i.e., the purely formal features of language---endured. Influenced by Alfred Tarski, Carnap came to appreciate the need to take account of nonformal meanings (those involving external reference). This led to his publication of The Introduction of Semantics (1942), a work restricted to exclusively extensional logic, as was the subsequent volume, Formalization of Semantics (1943). However, he moved on to consider non-extensional logics in Meaning and Necessity. A leader in the unity of science movement, Carnap also wrestled with the empirical verification principle of meaning and the problems of induction and probability theory. His last major treatise was the book Logical Foundations of Probability (1950).

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