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EVOLUTION OF IRON AND STEELMAKING
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alloys ammonia basic basic oxygen process battery blast furnace bottom brick carbon carbon monoxide charge chemical coal coke coke-oven gas combustion composition concentration containing cooling cubic deoxidation deposits desulphurization dolomite electric-furnace electrode equilibrium ﬁne ﬁrst ﬂame ﬂow ﬂue ﬂux fuel fumace gases hearth heat hematite hopper hot metal hydrogen increase Iron and Steel iron formation iron oxide iron-ore kiln kilojoules ladle lime liquid iron lubricant magnetite manganese materials melting Metallurgical methods metres metric tons million metric tons Mining molten nace open-hearth operation oven oxygen pellets phosphorus pig iron plant preheated pressure production Q-BOP range reaction reduced reﬁning refractory regenerator removed scrap shown in Figure silica silicon sinter slag solid solution speciﬁc steelmaking processes stove sulphur taconite tapping temperature tion tundish Turkdogan tuyeres United valve vapor walls