The Mental Health Consequences of Torture

Front Cover
Ellen Gerrity, Terence M. Keane, Farris Tuma
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 31, 2001 - Medical - 375 pages

In 1997 the National Institute of Mental Health assembled a working group of international experts to address the mental health consequences of torture and related violence and trauma; report on the status of scientific knowledge; and include research recommendations with implications for treatment, services, and policy development. This book, dedicated to those who experience the horrors of torture and those who work to end it, is based on that report.

 

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BRAIN WASHING LATINO AMERICA VENEZUELA ESPAIN, ENGLAND, GERMANY, JAPAN, CHINA, NORTH COREA.
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ADifferent agencies who perform these activities from satellites in some Latin American countries:
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* AGENCIES - SNIPER ELITE - SEAL USA ARMY - eliax - Suizan AGENCIES - GERMANY agencys.
URL: https://docs.google.com/open?id=0B7rdd1w6dkcSamZTX1ZNWWZmVkk
Juan Carlos Vallejos
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04144229169 -0414-585-00-44- 0414-4066852
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Brain Brainwashing Nano Washing with Computers.
A
ááBrainwashing subjects of studies of the human race this is done searing memory processing areas in the hypothalamus, these dying cells stop producing the electrochemical reactions that cause the individual remember to treat the evidence no sen these agencies noted or visible downloaders in nano voltaic cell bodies imitating duplication process and growth of nerve cells, the time when performing these types of duplication are nano seconds, while trying to remember the individual any event, with nano computers, disconnections occur between different areas of the brain and hypothalamus, treating the subject performing the processes of hearing, speech, sensation, vision, perception does not remember what happens or happened in time which is in courts.
Example 1: When disconnecting the processing centers of vision and connections with the hypothalamus and optic nerves the person could fail to perceive images and stimuli of different areas in the brain remembering that areas in the brain even when you are not normally would process visual stimuli, process information such as the psyche and the brain to bring information to the scepters that makes the individual recognize the images. Various studies have shown that the processing centers atmosphere activities take information but generally the brain processes the information to then be understood.
Example 2: to communicate with the people around us, the hypothalamus and various brain regions electrochemical reactions to produce speech, some agencies treat this process is not carried out, among the techniques used, found, burns to the processing center stimulus that occurs in the process of speaking, suppose you are going to say the words "I are burning the brain" and any intelligence agency wants not hear this kind of talk, in fractions of nanoseconds, cauterized the areas where discharges occur nanovoltaicas that would make people talk and say such words, this happens at the speed of light, to say the words (I - are-burned - on ....), the agency cauterized areas making a word than such as nerve cells that produce this type of electrochemical downloads do not exist. Sometime could cauterize any area where the electrochemical reactions occur and specific words nanovoltaicas downloads large number of dying cells in different areas so the word did not think the subject says or when trying to speak different interruption occurs which other cells or other areas of the brain trying to send voltaic nano downloads as a mechanism for the individual to speak. It also happens that these agencies produce electrochemical discharges and lullabies voltaic cells to grow so that the subject can do the activities that comprise the complexities of communication, vision, hearing.
Example 3: to produce genetic damage and treat the individual does not remember any specific situation, cauterized to cells at birth or duplicated the cell is not the same length in the DNA molecule, you could ask what is the relationship between DNA length and memories, all stimulus produces changes in the DNA molecule, which make these occur, stimuli based on environmental stimuli around us, this process is called, molecular-genetic memory, that would to distinguish it from the memory which is described in literature (neuro psychiatry), nerve cells, whose reactions, changes in shape acting on the internal organs of nerve cells, synaptic processes, the number of molecules emerge in the reactions of each synapse (by stimuli of environment) and each nerve cell
 

Contents

Introduction
3
Background
4
Conceptual and Definitional Concerns
5
Organization of the Book
8
References
11
The Survivors Perspective Voices from the Center
13
Torture and Related Trauma
14
Victim Versus Survivor
15
Trauma as a Risk Factor
164
Comorbidity and Other Outcomes
167
Influences on Psychopathology
168
Research Recommendations and Conclusions
169
References
171
TORTURE AND THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL VIOLENCE
175
Rape and Sexual Assault
177
Focus of Section
178

A Shroud of Guilt
17
How Could I Let That Happen?
18
Misdiagnosis
19
To Live or Not?
20
To Believe or Not
22
Resilience of Survivors
23
Reclaiming Control
24
Therapy
26
Effects of Torture on the Family
29
The Culture of Denial
30
Research Recommendations From the Survivors Perspective
33
References
34
Torture and Mental Health A Research Overview
35
Prevalence of Torture
36
Physical Effects of Torture
37
Psychological Effects of Torture
38
Evidence for a TortureSpecific Syndrome
45
Discussion and Conclusions
48
References
57
CONCEPTUAL MODELS FOR UNDERSTANDING TORTURE
63
Psychosocial Models
65
Information Processing
66
SocialCognitive Models
67
Social Support Models
68
Learned Helplessness
69
References
70
Neurobiological Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
73
Sympathetic Nervous System Alterations in PTSD
74
The HypothalamicPituitaryAdrenal Axis
76
Stress Sensitization
77
Fear Conditioning
78
Enhanced Memory for Aversive Events
80
Other Considerations
82
References
83
Economic Models
89
Conceptual Framework
90
Major Analytic Questions
91
The Role of Economic Burden Measures
104
References
105
TORTURE AND THE TRAUMA OF WAR
109
Refugees and AsylumSeekers
111
Scope of the Problem
112
Studies of Psychological Problems in Refugee Populations
113
Biological Social and Cultural Effects of Torture and Trauma
115
Research Recommendations
116
References
117
Veterans of Armed Conflicts
121
Impact
122
Recommendations for Future Research
127
References
128
Former Prisoners of War Highlights of Empirical Research
133
Course and Complications
136
Biological Correlates of Captivity Survivors Impairments
137
Recent Attention to US POWs
138
References
140
Holocaust Trauma and Sequelae
143
Impact of Trauma
144
Individual Differences
147
Coping With Life Stresses Subsequent to the Trauma of the Holocaust
149
Protective Factors Facilitating Healing
150
Contextualizing the Holocaust Experience
152
Conclusion
153
References
154
Survivors of War Trauma Mass Violence and Civilian Terror
159
Introduction
160
Methodology
161
Trends in Trauma Assessment
163
Scope of Exposure
179
Impact
180
Other Psychological Outcomes
181
Cognitive Outcomes
182
Economic Impact
184
Risk and Protective Factors
185
Research Recommendations
186
References
187
Homicide and Physical Assault
195
Scope of Exposure
196
Impact
198
Risk Factors
203
References
206
Children Adolescents and Families Exposed to Torture and Related Trauma
211
Range and Prevalence of Trauma Exposure in Children and Adolescents
212
Nature and Course of Psychological Physical Social and Developmental Consequences
214
Factors That Influence Vulnerability Adjustment and Recovery
217
Assessment and Intervention
218
Conclusion
221
Domestic Violence in Families Exposed to Torture and Related Violence and Trauma
227
Does Exposure to Torture Detention WarZone Political and Ethnic Violence and Refugee Resettlement Increase the Likelihood or Severity of Domest...
231
Are the Characteristics of Domestic Violence Different in Families That Have Experienced Severe Trauma?
235
Should Approaches to Treatment and Prevention of Domestic Violence Be Different for Families That Have Experienced Trauma?
239
References
242
CLINICAL ISSUES FOR SURVIVORS OF TORTURE
247
Assessment Diagnosis and Intervention
249
Assessment
251
Diagnoses
253
Intervention Issues
255
Specific Intervention Strategies
259
Community Approaches
265
Research Recommendations
269
References
270
Measurement Issues
277
Basic Principles of Measurement
278
Measurement Procedures
283
Measurement Instruments
285
Summary of Measurement Issues
287
References
288
Mental Health Services Research Implications for Survivors of Torture
291
Structure and Organization of the Health Care System
292
Process of Car
298
Intended Outcomes of Care
301
Access to Care
302
Conclusion
305
Professional Caregiver and Observer Issues
309
Therapist Reactions
310
Other Caregiver Responses
312
Ethical Issues in Torture and Trauma Treatment
313
References
314
Torture and Human Rights Violations Public Policy and the Law
317
The Law and Treatment and Services for Trauma Survivors
318
An Overview of International Human Rights Law Concerning Survivors of Torture
319
Addressing War Crimes and Other Massive Human Rights Violations
320
The Crime Victims Rights Laws and Their Implementation
321
Reparations Resitution and Compensation
326
Restorative Justice
327
Implications and Policy Recommendations
328
References
329
DISCUSSION
333
Future Directions
335
Summary of Selected Research Findings
336
Conclusion
341
Index
343
Biographical Information
369
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