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137 diameters allotropic alloys Alpha-iron annealing antimony appear areas austenite Beta-iron block brittle cadmium carbon steel carburized iron cast iron cementite cent carbon cent of carbon Chatelier chemical cleavage composition compound Comptes Rendus constituents copper critical points crystalline grains crystals cuboids curve described dilatation dissolved elongation etching eutectic experiments Fe3C ferrite Gamma-iron graphite hard hardening heat inch investigation Iron and Steel liquid magnetic Magnified manganese Martens martensite mass mechanical metal Metallographist metallurgy method microscope microstructure molecular molecule nickel nitric acid oblique light observed obtained Osmond paper pearlyte phosphide phosphorus photograph piece pig iron plates polished Polished and etched present Prof Professor Arnold pure iron quenched Roberts-Austen samples Sauveur shaft shows silicon slip-bands soft steel solid solution solidification Sorby specimen Stead steel containing Steel Institute strain structure substance sulphide surface tion transformation treatment ture twin bands Vertical light
Page 321 - ... one of the most important, and at the same time, one of the least expensive and troublesome, which we possess.
Page 25 - Institute in 1899 clearly defines the position and claims of the solution theory : — " The solution theory of carburised iron affirms that this substance is, when fluid, a solution of Carbon in iron, and that under certain conditions the solidified mass also forms a solid solution. It further affirms that these liquid and solid solutions obey the ordinary laws of solution, which have been fully studied in the case of aqueous, saline, and organic solutions. (The...
Page 32 - ... Nevertheless, from the molecular point of view, much may be said in answer to the question. The mystery is in fact lessened now, as it is known that the mode of existence of carbon in iron follows the laws of ordinary saline solutions. Our knowledge is, however, of very recent origin, and we owe mainly to the Alloys Research Committee of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers...
Page 333 - There is no other fact which so profoundly affects the industry of the world. We now know, but only at the end of the century, that in steel of somewhat low carburisation, but wide industrial application, the heat equivalent of the allotropic change is exactly double that due to the change of the relation between the carbon and the iron, the respective figures being 18 and 9 calories. As one of the last important engineering works in a century which the...
Page 43 - White 2,200° With the advancing knowledge of. and interest in, the heat treatment of steel, the foregoing notes, it is hoped, may prove of some value to those engaged in the handling of steel at various temperatures, and lead to further and wider discussion of the subject, with a view to the better understanding and more accurate knowledge of the correct temperatures. The importance of knowing with close approximation the temperatures used in the treatment of steel, cannot be over-estimated, as...
Page 256 - C, 1883, page 450. (With Mr. J. Werth.) The Cellular Theory of the Properties of Steel. — Annales des Mines, July and August, 1885. (With Mr. J. Werth.) On the Phenomena which take Place during the Heating and Cooling of Steel. — Comptes Rendus, Vol. CIII, 1886, pages 743 and 1135. Transformations of Iron and Carbon in Iron, Steel, and White Cast Iron.
Page 92 - What I really proved was that various kinds of iron and steel are varying mixtures of well-defined substances, and that their structure is in many respects analogous to that of igneous rock I also took specimens of iron and steel and acted upon them with acid, so that it was possible to print from them as from types, and show many interesting points connected with their structure.
Page 42 - The nomenclature used for color heats differs with different operators, but in our investigation we have adopted that which seems more nearly to represent the actual color corresponding to the heat sought to be represented. We have found that different observers have quite a different eye for color, which leads to quite a range of temperatures covering the same color. Further, we have found that the quality or intensity of light in which color heats are observed — that is, a bright sunny day, or...
Page 94 - The structure of pure metals, of metals containing small quantities of foreign matter, and of alloys, has been made the subject of microscopic examination, and important conclusions have been reached. The work to be described in this paper proceeds on the same general lines. A large part of it deals with a branch of the subject which has not hitherto received much notice, namely, the effects of strain. The writers believe that they have established the fact that the structure of metals is crystalline...