The Method of the Vedanta: A Critical Account of the Advaita Tradition

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Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1989 - Advaita - 975 pages
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Swami Satchidanandendra`s major work represents the first large scale critical history of Advaita Vedanta ever attempted. It seeks to establish a clear view of the traditional advaita vedanta based on the upanishads Brahma sutras and bhagavad gita as syst
 

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Contents

How Vedic Tradition and Inference lead on to Direct Experience
69
Vedic Support for the last two Points
83
The Method of Communicating the true Nature of the Absolute
88
Communicating the Absolute through Discriminating it
93
Communicating the true Nature of the Self through a
95
How the true Nature of the Individual Soul is Being or the Absolute
96
How the Self is of the Nature of Consciousness
98
The Self is ever void of the States
100
How the Selfs Appearance of having Three Forms is Illusory
104
Distinction between the Individual Soul and the Lord negated
107
How the Self is in no way touched by Practical Experience
110
What does it mean to speak of the Falsity of Duality?
116
How in the State of Empirical Experience a Distinction among
119
Texts
122
Certain Vedic Texts proclaim the Existence and true Nature
126
The Higher and Lower Absolute
130
The Difference between Knowledge and Prescribed Meditations
132
The Means to Knowledge
136
Alternative Combinations of the means to Knowledge
140
The Limits of Spiritual Practice
142
The Difference between prescribed Symbolic Meditations
146
The Learning and other Virtues to be pursued by the Renunciate
150
No Distinctions of Kind are found in Liberation as the result
164
the Absolute made
180
The Doctrine of Liberation through Elimination of Pleasuredesire
199
The View that Liberation comes from halting the Impressions
200
The View that Liberation results from Obedience to an Injunction
205
The View that Liberation arises from an Injunction to suppress all
207
The Doctrine of the Bhagavatas
208
CHAPTER V
213
Cause and Effect in the School of Difference in Identity
215
The Eight Conditions of the Absolute
219
The Conscious Individual as Modification of the Absolute
221
The Distinction between the Seer and his Seeing
225
Explanation of the Class of Texts like Though seeing yet He
227
The Qualifications for Knowledge of the Absolute
231
Examination of the Three States
235
Discussion of Liberation
245
The Intermediate Stage
246
Hearing Pondering and Sustained Meditation
251
The Doctrine of Liberation through a Combination of Knowledge
254
Rising above the Divine Wealth
256
CHAPTER VI
260
Why the Position of Mandana has to be examined first
261
The Nature of Metaphysical Ignorance in Mandanas System
262
The Indeterminability of Metaphysical Ignorance
263
The Seat of Ignorance
265
The Cessation of Natural Ignorance
266
Doctrine of the Cancellation of Illusion
269
Experience through the Means of Valid Knowledge
271
Objections and Answers regarding the Authority of the Veda
275
Objections and Answers to the Possibility of the Words of the Veda
278
The Combination of Repeated Meditation and Ritualistic Action
282
The Method for obtaining Liberation
287
Sympathy with other Advaita Theories
292
Summary of Mandana
296
CHAPTER VII
297
The rival Doctrines examined in the Sambandha Vartika
299
The Treatment of the Doctrine of Bhartrprapanca in the Vartika
302
Because the Unity and Sole Reality of the Self expresses itself
304
Metaphysical Ignorance in Suresvara
305
Objections and Answers on the Subject of Metaphysical Ignorance
307
The Treatment of Ignorance by Sri Sahkara and Suresvara compared
311
Enquiry into the Seat of Ignorance and the Object which it conceals
313
The Operation of the Means of Knowledge
316
The Cancellation of Illusion
320
Role of Negative Texts
323
Perception etc cannot contradict the Veda
330
The Treatment of Universal and Particular
337
The Treatment of the Discrimination of the Five Sheaths
340
The Distinction between Subject and Object
343
Teaching by Examination of the Three States of Waking
348
Can there be an Injunction for Knowledge?
360
Can there be Injunctions for Hearing Pondering and
364
Comparison of Sri Sahkara and Suresvara on the Topic of
367
The Injunction for Inner and Outer Control and the
373
How Action and Meditation relate
377
There is no other Liberation except Eradication of Ignorance
379
All Duality is imagined through Ignorance
380
The Form of Nonduality approved in the Vartika
382
CHAPTER VIII
385
The Nature of Ignorance according to the Pancapadika
386
What is the Proof of Ignorance?
389
The Effect of Ignorance
390
the Doctrine of Ignorance as Material Cause of the World
392
The Definition of Superimposition in the System of the Pancapadika
393
Why are Different Theories of Superimposition Mentioned?
396
The two Examples adduced in Sri Sarikaras Commentary to
398
The Defect of Ignorance as the Cause of the Distinctions
402
Superimposition and Empirical Experience are One and
407
The EgoSuperimposition
412
The Self as the Object of the Notion T
417
The EgoNotion
419
The Examples of Superimposition given in the Pancapadika
428
The Identity of Superimposition and Ignorance
433
Empirical Experience through the Means of Valid Knowledge
435
The Immediately Evident Character of the Object of Knowledge
438
Answers to Objections about the Authenticity of the
441
Direct Experience of the Self
447
260
449
Refutation of the Doctrine that the Absolute is taught as an
450
How can Beginning1ess Ignorance have an End?
454
The Treatment of Cause and Effect
458
The Treatment of the Three States
461
Examination of the Means to Metaphysical Knowledge
464
Summary of the Pancapadika
469
CHAPTER IX
470
The Tradition followed by Bhaskara
471
The Author of the Vrtti and the Author of the Vakya referred
474
The Divisions of SubjectMatter in the Brahma Sutras
475
Treatment of the Topic of Ignorance
476
The Authority of Perception etc and the Authority of the Veda
481
The Relation of Vedic Revelation and Reason
486
The Prime Importance of the CauseEffect Relation in the
488
The Treatment of Cause and Effect
490
Refutation of the Doctrine of the Unreality of the Effect
493
The Doctrine that the Self undergoes real Transformation
498
Refutation of the Doctrine of Maya
503
The Doctrine of the Reality of the Effect before Production
507
The Relation between the Individual Soul and the Lord
514
The Empirical Experience of the Individual Soul
519
The Method of Discrimination of the Five Sheaths
524
The Works of Vacaspati Misra
547
The Place of the Bhamati School in Vedanta
548
The Two Ignorances in the System of the Bhamati
549
The Definition of Superimposition
552
Consideration of Superimposition as Superimposition of an Object
554
The Begininglessness of Ignorance
557
The Seat of Ignorance
561
The Plurality of Ignorance
562
The Cause of Ignorance
564
How the Interplay of the Means of Knowledge and their Objects
565
The Validity of the Veda
567
The Relation between Revelation and Reason
574
The True SubjectMatter of Vedic Teaching
577
The Treatment of Cause and Effect
580
The Unmanifest
584
The Superimposition of the Notion that one is an Individual Soul
589
The Relation between the Absolute and the Individual Sou1
591
Refutation of the Doctrine of Difference in Identity
597
The Discrimination of the Five Sheaths
601
Dream in the Context of the Discrimination of the Three States
605
Dreamless Sleep in the Context of the Discrimination of the
611
Liberation is Eternal as it is ones State when one has realized
615
Liberation in Life
616
The Means to Liberation
621
Hearing Pondering and Sustained Meditation
628
The
632
The School which holds that Immediate Intuition cannot arise
641
Concluding Summary
646
CHAPTER XI
647
The Main Point in the Book is the Establishment of
648
The Division of SubjectMatter in the Book
649
Predominance of Dialectical Argumentation
650
Refutation of the Distinction between Subject and Object
651
The Authors Dialectical Method
654
Because the World is Indeterminable NonDuality is Safeguarded
656
Proof that the Universe is the Effect of the Indeterminable
657
The Relation between the Absolute Maya and the World
659
The Treatment of Cause and Effect
660
Ignorance as the Cause of Purely Phenomenal Objects
666
Ignorance Ajnana is Different from Error Doubt and
670
Theories of Error
676
The Nature of Ignorance of the Shell
682
Ignorance of the Shell does not truly exist
692
How do the Means of Valid Cognition operate?
701
The Termination of Ignorance
706
What is the Cessation of Indeterminable Ignorance?
711
Ignorance of the Absolute terminated by Stages
715
Knowledge of the Absolute causes Immediate Intuition
724
A Modicum of Ignorance accompanies even the one who has
729
Refutation of the Systems of Mandana and others
734
Refutation of NonDualism as conceived in the Theory of the
743
Acceptance of the Doctrine of Positive NonDuality
746
Defence against Opponents Objections
749
Summary
750
CHAPTER XII
752
Superimposition has False Ignorance Mithya Ajnana for its
753
Demonstration of the Nature of Metaphysical Ignorance
755
Threefold Cause of the Superimposition of the NotSelf
761
The Seat of Ignorance and the Object it conceals
764
The Distinction between the Soul and the Absolute
769
The EgoSuperimposition
773
The Soul as a Reflection of the Absolute
775
Refutation of the Theory of Delimitation Avaccheda Vada
778
Ignorance in Dreamless Sleep
781
Ignorance is not a Material Cause introducing a Distinction
787
Explanation of Knower Knowing and Known
790
Proof of Superimposition
795
ShellSilver and so on as the Examples for Superimposition
798
Study of the Cancellation of Error
804
The Identity of Avidya and Maya
810
The Cessation of Ignorance
813
The Doctrine of the Impression of Ignorance AvidyaSamskara
817
The Absolute as the Cause of Vedic Tradition
820
The Absolute is known through Vedic Revelation even though
822
Reflection and Dialectic
830
Immediate Knowledge and the Means which lead to it
832
Hearing Pondering and Sustained Meditation
835
How Action is an Aid to Knowledge
844
The Absolute is the Cause of the World
852
Summary of the Vivarana
855
CHAPTER XIII
857
The Order of Topics in the Nyaya Makaranda
858
Error is the Manifestation of an Object of Indeterminable
861
Beginingless Indeterminable Ignorance
866
The Falsity of the Universe and the Self
868
the Veda
870
How the Upanishads can be an Authoritative Source of Knowledge
872
How the Upanishadic Texts refer to a Partless Entity
874
Examination of the Nature of Liberation
878
The Seat of Ignorance
879
The Means to Libeiation
882
The Cessation of Ignorance
883
Summary of the Nyaya Makaranda
885
CHAPTER XIV
886
Division of Topics in the Book
887
No Rule that both must agree on the Reality of the Means of
888
Even the Nihilist has a Right to enter into Debate
891
Idealism based on SelfLuminous Cognition
893
The Indeterminability of the Universe of Plurality
899
What is the Proof of NonDuality?
904
Summary
906
CHAPTER XV
908
The Contents of the Tattva Pradipika
909
Citsukhas Manner of Expounding a Topic
910
Some Definitions and Proofs accepted by Citsukhacarya
914
Citsukhacaryas Place in the History of Vedanta
916
CHAPTER XVI
918
The Importance of his Work
920
The Purpose of the Vedanta and of this particular Work
922
Points about the Supreme Texts
923
The Veda is the Source of Knowledge of the Absolute
925
Miscellaneous Teachings from the Section on the Harmony
927
The Absolute as Cause of the World
929
Examination of the Three States of Waking Dream and
932
Bare Consciousness is both the Seat of Ignorance and the Object
935
Accounting for the Distinction between Bound and Liberated Souls
938
Liberation in Life
939
The Place of Sarvajnatman in the History of Vedanta
940
SELECT INDEX OF CONCEPTS
945
BIBLIOGRAPHY
971
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Page 91 - You cannot see the seer of seeing, you cannot hear the hearer of hearing, you cannot think the thinker of thinking, you cannot know the knower of knowing. He is
Page 89 - You cannot see the seer of seeing, you cannot hear the hearer of hearing, you cannot think the thinker of thinking, you cannot know the knower of knowing. He is
Page 225 - You cannot see the seer of seeing, you cannot hear the hearer of hearing, you cannot think the thinker of thinking, you cannot know the knower of knowing
Page 314 - Further, the not-self is born of Ignorance. It is absurd to suppose that that which is logically and causally prior can only exist supported by and dependent on its own effect. Nor, again, has the not-self any form independent of and different from Ignorance, whereby it could serve as its
Page 3 - There is no other seer, no other hearer, no other thinker, no other knower
Page 41 - saying of those who know the true tradition, "That which cannot be expressed (in its true form directly) is expressed (indirectly) through false attribution and subsequent retraction'
Page 77 - form. All beings abide in Me but I do not abide in them.
Page 252 - so are all beings, all gods, all worlds, all organs and all these individual
Page 30 - essence) for its Self. That is the real. That is the Self. That thou art
Page 102 - the five organs of perception, the five organs of action, the five

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