The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes: Volume 1: Philosophical Papers

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Cambridge University Press, Oct 16, 1980 - Philosophy - 250 pages
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Imre Lakatos' philosophical and scientific papers are published here in two volumes. Volume I brings together his very influential but scattered papers on the philosophy of the physical sciences, and includes one important unpublished essay on the effect of Newton's scientific achievement. Volume II presents his work on the philosophy of mathematics (much of it unpublished), together with some critical essays on contemporary philosophers of science and some famous polemical writings on political and educational issues. Imre Lakatos had an influence out of all proportion to the length of his philosophical career. This collection exhibits and confirms the originality, range and the essential unity of his work. It demonstrates too the force and spirit he brought to every issue with which he engaged, from his most abstract mathematical work to his passionate 'Letter to the director of the LSE'. Lakatos' ideas are now the focus of widespread and increasing interest, and these volumes should make possible for the first time their study as a whole and their proper assessment.
 

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Contents

Science and pseudoscience
1
Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes
8
2 Fallibilism versus falsificationism
10
a Dogmatic or naturalistic falsif1cationism The empirical basis
12
b Methodological falsificationism The empirical basis
20
c Sophisticated versus naive methodological falsificationism Progressive and degenerating problemshifts
31
3 A methodology of scientific research programme
47
the hard core of the programme
48
d Conclusion
138
Popper on demarcation and induction
139
1 Popper on demarcation
140
b How can one criticize the rules of the scientific game?
144
c A quasiPolanyiite falsif1cation of Poppers demarcation criterion
146
d An amended demarcation criterion
148
e An amended metacriterion
151
scepticism and fallibilism
154

the construction of the protective belt and the relative autonomy of theoretical science
49
Prout and Bohr
52
a research programme progressing in an ocean of anomalies
53
a research programme progressing on inconsistent foundations
55
the end of instant rationality
68
1 The MichelsonMorley experiment
73
2 The LummerPringsheim experiments
79
3 Betadecay versus conservation laws
81
4 Conclusion The requirement of continuous growth
86
4 The Popperian versus the Kuhnian research programme
90
Popper falsificationism and the DuhemQuine thesis
93
History of science and its rational reconstructions
102
rational reconstructions as guides to history
103
b Conventionalism
105
c Methodological falsificationism
108
d Methodology of scientific research programmes
110
e Internal and external history
118
Critical comparison of methodologies history as a test of its rational reconstructions
121
history falsifies falsificationism and any other methodology
123
b The methodology of historiographical research programmes History to varying degrees corroborates its rational reconstructions
131
c Against aprioristic and antitheoretical approaches to methodology
136
b A plea to Popper for a whiff of inductivism
159
Why did Copernicuss research programme supersede Ptolemys?
168
1 Empiricist accounts of the Copernican Revolution
169
2 Simplicism
173
3 Polyanyiite and Feyerabendian accounts of the Copernican revolution
176
4 The Copernican revolution in the light of the methodology of scientific research programmes
178
5 The Copernican revolution in the light of Zahars new version of the methodology of scientific research programmes
184
6 A postscript on history of science and its rational reconstructions
189
Newtons effect on scientific standards
193
b Psychologistic justificationism
195
c Justificationist fallibilism
198
2 Newtonian methodology versus Newtonian method
201
b Newtonians against metaphysical criticism
202
c Newtons idea of experimental proof and its credo quid absurdum
208
d Newtonians and factual criticism
214
e Newtons double legacy
220
References
223
Lakatos bibliography
237
Indexes
240
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About the author (1980)

Imre Lakatos (1922 74) was one of the twentieth century's most prominent philosophers of science and mathematics, best known for his theory of the methodology of proof and refutation in mathematics.

Worrall is Reader in Philosophy of Science at the London School of Economics.

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