The Nature and Functions of Dreaming
The Nature and Function of Dreaming presents a comprehensive theory of dreaming based on many years of psychological and biological research by Ernest Hartmann and others. Critical to this theory is the concept of a Central Image; in this volume, Hartmann describes his repeated finding that dreams of being swept away by a tidal wave are common among people who have recently experienced a trauma of some kind - a fire, an attack, or a rape. Dreams with these Central Images are not dreams of the traumatic experience itself, but rather the Central Image reveals the emotional response to the experience. Dreams with a potent Central Image, like the tidal wave, vary in intensity along with the severity of the trauma; this pattern was shown quite powerfully in a systematic study of dreams occuring before and after the September 11 attacks in New York. Hartmann's theory comprises three fundamental elements: dreaming is simply one form of mental functioning, occurring along a continuum from focused waking thought to reverie, daydreaming, and fantasy. Second, dreaming is hyperconnective, linking material more fluidly and making connections that aren't made as readily in waking thought. Finally, the connections that are made are not random, but rather are guided by the dreamer's emotions or emotional concerns - and the more powerful the emotion, the more intense the Central Image.
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2 The Tidal Wave Dream
3 Emotion Guides the Dream The Central Image of the Dream Pictures and Measures the Emotion
4 A Dream Is a Creation Not a Replay A Dream Always Makes New Connections Guided by Emotion
5 The FocusedWakingThoughttoDreaming Continuum Dreaming Is One End of a Continuum
6 Dreaming Connects The Dreaming End of the Continuum Is Hyperconnective
7 Connection as Combination Connection as Condensation Connection as Metaphor The Dream as PictureMetaphor
8 Connections in the Mind and Brain The Biology of Dreaming Networks in the Cerebral Cortex
The Development of Dreaming and the Content of Dreams
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appears association basic bizarre brain Category cerebral cortex Chapter childhood conceptual metaphor connectionist connections consider dreaming Contemporary Theory content analysis continuum of mental correlation cortex cortical activation daydreams detail development of dreaming discussed Domhoff dream content dream image dream interpretation dream recall dream series dreamer dreaming end emotion-guided emotional concerns especially examine experience factor fantasy feel focused waking thought focused-waking focused-waking-thought forms of mental Foulkes Freud functions of dreaming guided by emotion Hartmann hyper-connective imagery instance interpretation keyed True Kunzendorf lucid dreams male material memory systems mental functioning metaphor minds neurons nightmares norepinephrine NREM obviously occur Ojibwa one’s patients patterns person pictured psychoanalysis psychotherapy PTSD recent dreams relationship REM sleep remember replay reported Schredl scored sense similar sometimes studies suggest SumBound Thermoregulation thick thin boundaries thinness of boundaries tidal wave dream tions trauma underlying emotion usually visuo-spatial words