The Nature and Functions of Dreaming

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Oxford University Press, Nov 24, 2010 - Psychology - 176 pages
The Nature and Function of Dreaming presents a comprehensive theory of dreaming based on many years of psychological and biological research by Ernest Hartmann and others. Critical to this theory is the concept of a Central Image; in this volume, Hartmann describes his repeated finding that dreams of being swept away by a tidal wave are common among people who have recently experienced a trauma of some kind - a fire, an attack, or a rape. Dreams with these Central Images are not dreams of the traumatic experience itself, but rather the Central Image reveals the emotional response to the experience. Dreams with a potent Central Image, like the tidal wave, vary in intensity along with the severity of the trauma; this pattern was shown quite powerfully in a systematic study of dreams occuring before and after the September 11 attacks in New York. Hartmann's theory comprises three fundamental elements: dreaming is simply one form of mental functioning, occurring along a continuum from focused waking thought to reverie, daydreaming, and fantasy. Second, dreaming is hyperconnective, linking material more fluidly and making connections that aren't made as readily in waking thought. Finally, the connections that are made are not random, but rather are guided by the dreamer's emotions or emotional concerns - and the more powerful the emotion, the more intense the Central Image.
 

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Contents

1 Introduction Overview of the Contemporary Theory of Dreaming
3
2 The Tidal Wave Dream
7
3 Emotion Guides the Dream The Central Image of the Dream Pictures and Measures the Emotion
11
4 A Dream Is a Creation Not a Replay A Dream Always Makes New Connections Guided by Emotion
23
5 The FocusedWakingThoughttoDreaming Continuum Dreaming Is One End of a Continuum
31
6 Dreaming Connects The Dreaming End of the Continuum Is Hyperconnective
43
7 Connection as Combination Connection as Condensation Connection as Metaphor The Dream as PictureMetaphor
49
8 Connections in the Mind and Brain The Biology of Dreaming Networks in the Cerebral Cortex
61
10 Personality and Dreaming Thick and Thin Boundaries
87
11 The Functions of Dreaming
107
12 The Functions of the Continuum
121
Alone in a Group or in Therapy
127
References
141
Author Index
157
Subject Index
161
Copyright

The Development of Dreaming and the Content of Dreams
73

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About the author (2010)

Ernest Hartmann is Past President of the International Association for the Study of Dreams, and was the first Editor-in-Chief of ASD's journal, Dreaming. He is also Professor of Psychiatry at Tufts University School of Medicine and Director of the Sleep Disorders Center at Newton-Wellesley Hospital, and he maintains a private practice. He is author of nine books, and approximately 325 journal articles.

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