The Nature Of Prejudice: 25th Anniversary Edition

Front Cover
Basic Books, 1979 - Psychology - 537 pages
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With profound insight into the complexities of the human experience, Harvard psychologist Gordon Allport organized a mass of research to produce a landmark study on the roots and nature of prejudice. First published in 1954, The Nature of Prejudice remains the standard work on discrimination. Now this classic study is offered in a special unabridged edition with a new introduction by Kenneth Clark of Columbia University and a new preface by Thomas Pettigrew of Harvard University.Allport's comprehensive and penetrating work examines all aspects of this age-old problem: its roots in individual and social psychology, its varieties of expression, its impact on the individuals and communities. He explores all kinds of prejudice-racial, religious, ethnic, economic and sexual-and offers suggestions for reducing the devastating effects of discrimination.The additional material by Clark and Pettigrew updates the social-psychological research in prejudice and attests to the enduring values of Allport's original theories and insights.
 

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Review: The Nature of Prejudice

User Review  - Amy - Goodreads

very good book on what prejudice is and is not, how it evolves, and what we can do about it. If you have one book to read on this topic, this should be the one you choose Read full review

Contents

Two Cases
3
Definition
5
Is Prejudice a Value Concept?
8
Functional Significance
11
Attitudes and Beliefs
12
Acting Out Prejudice
13
Notes and References
14
THE NORMALITY OF PREJUDGMENT
16
Casual Contacts
262
Acquaintance
263
Residential Contact
267
Occupational Contact
273
Pursuit of Common Objectives
275
Goodwill Contacts
277
Personality Differences
278
Conclusion
279

The Process of Categorization
19
When Categories Conflict with Evidence
22
Personal Values as Categories
23
Personal Values and Prejudice
24
Summary
26
FORMATION OF INGROUPS
28
What Is an Ingroup?
30
Sex as an Ingroup
32
The Shifting Nature of Ingroups
33
Ingroups and Reference Groups
36
Social Distance
37
The GroupNorm Theory of Prejudice
38
Can there Be an Ingroup without an Outgroup?
40
Can Humanity Constitute an Ingroup?
42
Notes and References
45
REJECTION OF OUTGROUPS
47
Verbal Rejection
48
Discrimination
50
Conditions of Physical Attack
56
Riots and Lynching
58
The Essential Role of Rumor
62
Notes and References
64
PATTERNING AND EXTENT OF PREJUDICE
67
What Imperfect Correlations Mean
72
How Widespread Is Prejudice?
73
Demographic Variations in Prejudice
78
Notes and References
79
Would Differences If Discovered Justify Rejection?
86
Methods of Studying Group Differences
87
Types and Degrees of Differences
94
The Interpretation of Differences
102
Notes and References
103
RACIAL AND ETHNIC DIFFERENCES
106
True Racial Differences
109
Cultural Relativity
114
National Character
115
Who Are the Jews?
118
Conclusions
124
Notes and References
125
VISIBILITY AND STRANGENESS
128
The Young Child
129
Visible Differences Imply Real Differences
130
Degrees of Visibility
131
The Condensation of Attitudes around Visible Cues
134
Sensory Aversion
135
Discussion
137
Notes and References
139
TRAITS DUE TO VICTIMIZATION
141
Ego Defenses
142
Obsessive Concern
143
Denial of Membership
144
Withdrawal and Passivity
145
Clowning
146
Strengthening Ingroup Ties
147
Slyness and Cunning
149
Aggression against Own Group
151
Prejudice against Outgroups
152
Sympathy
153
Militancy
154
Enhanced Striving
155
Symbolic Status Striving
156
Neuroticism
157
The Selffulfilling Prophecy
158
Summary
159
Notes and References
160
PERCEIVING AND THINKING ABOUT GROUP DIFFERENCES
162
Selection Accentuation Interpretation
165
Directed and Autistic Thinking
166
Cause and Effect Thinking
168
The Nature of Categories
169
The Principle of Least Effort
172
The Dynamics of Cognition in the Prejudiced Personality
173
Conclusions
174
Notes and References
175
LINGUISTIC FACTORS
177
Emotionally Toned Labels
180
The Communist Label
182
Verbal Realism and Symbol Phobia
185
Notes and References
186
STEREOTYPES IN OUR CULTURE
188
Stereotype Defined
190
Stereotypes concerning the Jew
191
Stereotypes concerning the Negro
195
Comparison of Jewish and Negro Stereotypes
198
Mass Media and Stereotypes
199
Stereotypes Change in Time
201
Notes and References
203
THEORIES OF PREJUDICE
205
Historical Emphasis
207
Sociocultural Emphasis
210
Situational Emphasis
212
Psychodynamic Emphasis
213
Phenomenological Emphasis
215
Emphasis on Earned Reputation
216
Final Word
217
SOGIOGULTURAL FACTORS
218
Vertical Mobility
221
Rapid Social Change
223
Ignorance and Barriers to Communication
225
Size and Density of Minority Groups
226
Direct Competition and Realistic Conflict
228
Exploitative Advantage
232
Social Regulation of Aggression
233
Cultural Devices to Ensure Loyalty
235
Cultural Pluralism vs Assimilation
237
Summary
239
CHOICE OF SCAPEGOATS
242
Meaning of Scapegoat
243
Historical Method
245
Jews as Scapegoats
246
Reds as Scapegoats
252
Scapegoats for Special Occasions
256
Summary
258
THE EFFECT OF CONTACT
260
Kinds of Contact
261
Notes and References
280
ACQUIRING PREJUDICE
282
Social Entrance Ticket
285
The Neurosis of Extreme Conformity
287
Ethnocentric Pivots in Culture
288
Basic Psychology of Conformity
290
Conflict and Rebellion
293
Notes and References
295
THE YOUNG CHILD
296
Child Training
297
Fear of the Strange
299
Dawn of Racial Awareness
300
Symbols of Power and Rejection
303
The First Stage in Learning Prejudice
306
The Second Stage in Learning Prejudice
308
Notes and References
309
LATER LEARNING
311
Conditioning
312
Selective Perception and Closure
314
Learning by Subsidiation
316
The Need for Status
318
Caste and Class
319
Subsidiation of Attitudes to Caste and Class
322
Conclusion
323
INNER CONFLICT
325
Theory of An American Dilemma
328
The Inner Check
331
How the Conflict Is Handled
333
Notes and References
338
Frustration Tolerance
346
Responses to Frustration
347
Further Discussion of the Scapegoat Theory
348
Meaning of Psychodynamics
351
Notes and References
352
AGGRESSION AND HATRED
353
The Problem of Drainage
356
Aggression as a Trait of Personality
358
Social Patterning of Aggression
359
The Nature of Hatred
362
Notes and References
365
ANXIETY SEX GUILT
366
Economic Insecurity
369
SelfEsteem
370
Sexuality
371
Guilt
376
Notes and References
379
PROJECTION
381
Extropunitiveness as a Trait
382
Repression
383
Living Inkblots
384
Direct Projection
386
The MoteBeam Mechanism
388
Complementary Projection
389
Conclusion
390
Notes and References
391
CHARACTER STRUCTURE
392
Functional Prejudice
395
Ambivalence toward parents
396
Moralism
397
Dichotomization
399
Externalization
403
Authoritarianism
405
Discussion
406
Notes and References
407
DEMAGOGY
409
The Program of the Demagogue
413
The Followers
417
The Demagogue as a Person
418
Paranoid Bigotry
420
Notes and References
422
THE TOLERANT PERSONALITY
424
Early Life
425
Varieties of Tolerance
427
Militant and Pacifistic Tolerance
428
Liberalism and Radicalism
430
Education
431
Empathic Ability
433
SelfInsight
435
Intropunitiveness
436
Tolerance for Ambiguity
437
Philosophy of Life
439
Notes and References
441
RELIGION AND PREJUDICE
443
Divisive Factors in Religion
445
Do Religious Groups Differ in Prejudice?
448
Two Kinds of Religiosity
450
The Case of Simon Peter
452
Religion and Character Structure
454
Notes and References
455
A Brief History of Legislation2
461
Types of Legislation
463
Does Legislation Affect Prejudice?
468
Legislation and Social Science
472
Summary
475
Notes and References
476
EVALUATION OF PROGRAMS
478
The Research Approach
480
Formal Educational Programs
482
Contact and Acquaintance Programs
487
Group Retraining
490
Mass Media
492
Exhortation
494
Catharsis
495
Notes and References
498
LIMITATIONS AND HORIZONS
500
Special Obstacles
501
The Structural Argument
503
Positive Principles
506
Imperatives of Intercultural Education
509
Final Word on Theory
513
Final Word on Values
514
Notes and References
517
INDEX OF NAMES
519
INDEX OF SUBJECTS
525
Copyright

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About the author (1979)

Gordon W. Allport was born in 1897 in Montezuma, Indiana. He received his A.B., A.M., and Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University, did postgraduate work abroad, and returned to Harvard in 1930, where he served as professor of psychology until his death in 1967. During his lifetime, Allport served as president of both the American and Eastern Psychological Associations, director of the National Opinion Research Center, and editor of the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. His other books included The Psychology of Rumor, The Individual and His Religion, Personality, and Becoming.

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