The Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean
This book treats the structure and variability of basic physical fields in a thin near-surface layer which responds quickly to all short-term and local fluctuations of atmospheric forcing and of radiative solar energy flux. The book contains up-to-date information on different phenomena and processes in this layer based on research conducted over the last ten years. The following topics are treated in detail: basic types of vertical thermal structure of near-surface layers; anomalous phenomena on the ocean surface; thermal and haline boundary layers, its structures and relations to convection; diurnal thermocline and cycle nature of related processes; effects of precipitation on near-surface salinity and thermal structure; peculiarities of near-surface ocean currents; coherent (organized) forms of non-stationary currents (mushroom currents or vortex dipoles, transversal jets in coastal upwellings, vortices and jets in marginal ice zones); some aspects of effectiveness of remote sensing of the ocean by aerospace technique.
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Object and methods of the investigation
The surface of the ocean and its anomalous conditions
The thermal boundary layer of the ocean and the primary
contribution of the thermal boundary layer to the overall
Characteristic features of water motion in the nearsurface
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amplitude anomalous anticyclonic areas atmospheric bands boundary layer calm weather characteristics choppy water coefficient component convergence correlation current rips cyclonic density depth determined discussion in ref disturbances diurnal cycle diurnal thermocline drift eddies effect Ekman estimates filaments fluctuations free convection free surface frequency freshened frontal fronts geostrophic gradients Gulf Stream horizon ice edge images inhomogeneities instability intensive internal waves jet currents Langmuir circulations lee waves lower boundary manifestations marginal ice zone maximum measurements Meteor satellite metres mixed layer modulation motion mushroom-like currents near-surface layer observed obtained ocean surface phase velocity possible profiles propagation pycnocline region result salinity Sargasso Sea satellite scales sea surface Section slick solar heating solar irradiance space specific features spectral spectrum SST field stratification surface temperature surface waves thermal boundary layer thermal structure thickness turbulent variability vortex water surface wind velocity wind waves