The New Foundations of Evolution: On the Tree of Life
This is the story of a profound revolution in the way biologists explore life's history, understand its evolutionary processes, and reveal its diversity. It is about life's smallest entities, deepest diversity, and greatest cellular biomass: the microbiosphere. Jan Sapp introduces us to a new field of evolutionary biology and a new brand of molecular evolutionists who descend to the foundations of evolution on Earth to explore the origins of the genetic system and the primary life forms from which all others have emerged. In so doing, he examines-from Lamarck to the present-the means of pursuing the evolution of complexity, and of depicting the greatest differences among organisms. The New Foundations of Evolution takes us into a world that classical evolutionists could never have imagined: a deep phylogeny based on three domains of life and multiple kingdoms, and created by mechanisms very unlike those considered by Darwin and his followers. Evolution by leaps seems to occur regularly in the microbial world where molecular evolutionists have shown the inheritance of acquired genes and genomes are major modes of evolutionary innovation. Revisiting the history of microbiology for the first time from the perspective of evolutionary biology, Sapp shows why classical Darwinian conceptions centering on questions of the origin of species were forged without a microbial foundation, why classical microbiologists considered it impossible to know the course of evolution, and classical molecular biologists considered the evolution of the molecular genetic system to be beyond understanding. In telling this stirring story of scientific iconoclasm, this book elucidates how the new evolutionary biology arose, what methods and assumptions underpin it, and the fiery controversies that continue to shape biologists' understanding of the foundations of evolution today.
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TWELVE A Third Form of Life
THIRTEEN A Kingdom on a Molecule
FOURTEEN Against Adaptationism
FIFTEEN In the Capital of the New Kingdom
SEVENTEEN Big Tree
TWENTYONE Grappling with a Worldwide
TWENTYTWO Entangled Roots and Braided Lives
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16S rRNA Academy of Sciences amino acid animals Archaea archaebacteria bacteria Bacteriology bacterium Bergey’s Manual biochemistry biologists blue-green algae C.R. Woese Carl Woese cell walls cellular chapter characteristics chloroplasts chromosomes cladistic classification coli common ancestor complex concept cytoplasm Darwin diversity domains Doolittle enzymes eubacteria eukaryotes evolved extreme halophiles fossil genetic code genome Haeckel halophiles Ibid Journal of Molecular Kandler kingdom lateral gene transfer lineages lipids Mayr membrane metabolism methanogens microbial world Microbiology mitochondria molecular biology Molecular Evolution molecules Monera morphological National Academy natural Niel nucleic acid nucleus organelles organisms origin Otto Kandler peptidoglycan phenotypic phylogeny plants primitive progenote prokaryotes proposed protein protists relationships ribosomal RNA RNA polymerase Sapp species Stanier Stetter structure Sulfolobus symbiosis symbiotic synthesis systematics taxa taxonomy theory thermophilic Thermoplasma translation tRNA universal tree University of Illinois University Press urkingdom viruses Woese Papers Woese’s Wolfe wrote Zillig