The Osteology of Infants and Children

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Texas A&M University Press, Jul 27, 2005 - Social Science - 178 pages
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Most archaeologists and bioarchaeologists receive little or no training in the recognition of skeletal remains of fetuses, infants, and children. Yet many research sites may contain such materials. Without a framework for identifying the bones or the excavation techniques suited to their recovery, archaeologists may often overlook subadult skeletal remains or even confuse them with animal bones.

The Osteology of Infants and Children fills the need for a field and lab manual on this important topic and provides a supplemental textbook for human osteology courses. Focusing on juvenile skeletons, their recovery and identification, and siding in both field and lab settings, the volume provides basic descriptions and careful illustrations of each skeletal element at varying stages of development, along with sections on differentiation from other bones and siding tips.

The book offers detailed treatment of the skull and teeth, including the cranial vault and facial bones, and examines the infracranial skeleton: vertebrae, pelvis, chest, shoulders, arms, hands, legs, and feet. A quick reference guide explains age estimation and identification templates.

The illustrations are enhanced by photographs from two recent archaeology projects in Egypt, at Abydos and Dakhleh Oasis. The extensive collection of fetal and child remains from these sites provides new reference material unavailable in previous publications, making this manual an unparalleled resource in the field of physical anthropology.
 

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Contents

The Bare Bones of Subadult Skeletons
1
Studying the Bones of Children
3
A Framework for Understanding How Bones Grow
5
Anatomical Terms and Directions
7
Placing Subadult Skeletons in Age and Sex Categories
10
Excavating the Remains of Fetuses Infants and Children
11
How to Excavate Subadult Burials
13
Laboratory Treatment and Curation of Subadult Remains
24
The Chest and Shoulder Girdle
93
First Rib
95
Siding Techniques
96
Differentiation from Other Bones
97
Differentiation from Other Bones
98
Siding Techniques
99
Differentiation from Other Bones
101
Siding Techniques
102

The Skull and Teeth
29
The Bones of the Cranial Vault
31
Differentiation from Other Bones
32
Differentiation from Other Bones
33
The Occipital
34
Siding Techniques
36
The Temporal
37
Siding Techniques
38
The Sphenoid
39
Differentiation from Other Bones
40
Siding Techniques
41
The Bones of the Face
42
Siding Techniques
43
The Vomer
44
Differentiation from Other Bones
45
Siding Techniques
46
Siding Techniques
47
Differentiation from Other Bones
48
Differentiation from Other Bones
49
Siding Techniques
50
The Hyoid
51
Differentiation from Other Bones
52
The Dentition
53
Five Steps for Tooth Identification
54
2 Is the Tooth Deciduous or Permanent?
56
Molars
58
4 What Is the Tooths Position in the Dentition?
62
Premolars
63
5 Is the Tooth from the Right or Left Side?
64
Canines
65
Premolars
66
Molars
68
The Infracranial Skeleton
73
The Vertebral Column and Pelvic Girdle
75
Differentiation from Other Bones
76
Siding Techniques
77
Differentiation from Other Bones
78
Differentiation from Other Bones
79
Thoracic Vertebrae
80
Siding Techniques
81
Siding Techniques
82
The Sacrum
83
Differentiation from Other Bones
86
The Os Coxa
87
The Ilium
89
The Ischium
90
Siding Techniques
91
Siding Techniques
92
The Bones of the Arms and Legs
103
Differentiation from Other Bones
105
Siding Techniques
106
The Radius
107
Differentiation from other Bones
109
Differentiation from Other Bones
110
Siding Techniques
111
The Bones of the Leg
112
Differentiation from Other Bones
114
Siding Techniques
115
The Tibia
116
Differentiation from Other Bones
118
The Fibula
119
Differentiation from Other Bones
121
Siding Techniques
122
Differentiation from Other Bones
123
The Bones of the Hands and Feet
124
Scaphoid
125
Siding Technique
126
Siding Techniques
127
Differentiation from Other Bones
128
Differentiation from Other Bones
129
Metacarpals
130
Differentiation from Other Metacarpals
132
Siding Techniques
133
Fourth Metacarpal
134
Differentiation from Other Metacarpals
135
Intermediate Phalanges
137
The Bones of the Foot
138
Differentiation from Other Bones
139
Siding Techniques
140
Differentiation from Other Bones
141
Differentiation from Other Bone
142
Differentiation from Other Bones
143
Differentiation from Other Bones
144
Third or Lateral Cuneiform
145
First Metatarsal
147
Siding Techniques
148
Differentiation from Other Metatarsals
149
Differentiation from Other Metatarsals
150
Differentiating Metatarsals from Metacarpals
151
Differentiating Hand and Foot Phalanges
152
Quick Reference
155
Age Estimation and Templates for Identification
157
References Cited
173
Index
175
Copyright

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Page 174 - R. (2003) Nonmetric subadult skeletal sexing traits. I. A blind test of the accuracy of eight previously proposed methods using prehistoric known-sex mummies for Northern Chile.
Page 174 - T., 2004. Variation in crown and root formation and eruption of human deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 123, 172-180.
Page 174 - Saunders SR. 2000. Subadult skeletons and growth-related studies. In: Katzenberg MA, Saunders SR, editors. Biological anthropology of the human skeleton. New York: Wiley-Liss. p 1 35-61 . Saunders SR, Hoppa RD.
Page 174 - Liversidge, HM, Herdeg, B. and Rosing, FW (1998). Dental age estimation of nonadults. A review of methods and principles. In: Dental Anthropology, Fundamentals, Limits and Prospects (KW Alt, FW Rosing and M.
Page 174 - Ubelaker DH. 1999. Human skeletal remains: Excavation, analysis, interpretation. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Taraxacum.

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About the author (2005)

BRENDA J. BAKER, an associate professor of anthropology at Arizona State University, is the physical anthropologist for the University of Pennsylvania Museum–Yale University–Institute of Fine Arts, New York University Expedition to Abydos, Egypt, and adjunct curator at the New York State Museum, where she previously directed the NAGPRA program.TOSHA DUPRAS is an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Central Florida and a research scientist with the National Center for Forensic Sciences.MATTHEW W. TOCHERI is pursuing his doctorate in anthropology at Arizona State University, and the artist.SANDRA M. WHEELER, is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Western Ontario specializing in bioarchaeology.

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