The Paradox of Third-wave Democratization in Africa: The Gambia Under AFPRC-APRC Rule, 1994-2008
This book is about the dilemma(s) of "third-wave" "democratization" in Africa. It teases out the general proposition that while the market is a necessary ingredient for development, it is not by itself a sufficient condition for prosperity--the state's role, policy framework, and leadership also matter. Using a counter-example, the book contends that in a poor governance environment, gross human rights violations result in poor economic performance and failure by repressive governments to provide basic needs for the poor in society. While this study is concerned primarily with The Gambia, it nonetheless has a lot to say about Zimbabwe, Zambia, Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal, and other countries in the continent caught in the paralysis of externally driven political and economic transitions and globalization. Locating countries undergoing liberalization and democratization within the global economy--as well as their peripheral status within it--is important, as patterns of contemporary globalization are highly asymmetrical and often associated with a democratic deficit. Consequently, some groups, classes, and states enjoy numerous political and economic freedoms foreign to the vast majority of humanity, which lives in oppressive living conditions. The Paradox of Third-Wave Democratization in Africa is also a comprehensive account of the historical, political, and economic events since the onset of military and quasi-military rule in this West African mini-state of 1.5 million, once the longest surviving functioning democracy in Africa. Predictably, the book is about former President Dawda Jawara as much as it is about soldier-turned-president Yahya Jammeh, who in the last fourteen years has dominated the country's political and economic landscape. In the end, the book posits that various attempts to improve living standards of ordinary Gambians and Africans by client regimes using foisted conventional market-driven economic models alone are not likely to succeed until they are predicated on a basic-nee
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Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Theoretical Framework
Chapter 4 The October 2001 Presidential Elections
Chapter 5 The National Security State
Change or Continuity?
Chapter 9 Status Quo and Policy Suggestions
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2001 presidential election AFPRC African alleged allegedly alliance APRC APRC government argued army arrest Banjul Botswana campaign candidate Casamance Ceesay citizens civil civilian coalition Commission constitution continued corruption country’s coup d’etat crisis critical dalasi Darboe Darboe’s democracy democratic Dibba domestic economic performance electoral fact forces foreign policy framework Gambia Gambians abroad global growing Halifa Sallah Hamat Bah human rights important improved independence Jallow Jatta journalists leaders leadership lives Mandinka ment military NADD National Assembly Nigeria nomic officers Omar Jallow opposition parties Ousainou Darboe PDOIS percent political and economic political parties politicians poverty PPP government President Jammeh President Jawara reforms regime regime’s remain repressive rights violations role rule Saine Sallah security apparatus security sector Senegal Senegal’s Sidia Sidia Jatta social strategy threats tion tional victory violence vote voter West Africa World Bank Yahya Jammeh