The Psychology Of The Child

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Basic Books, Aug 6, 2008 - Psychology - 192 pages
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Piaget’s influence on psychology has been profound. His pathbreaking investigations and theories of cognitive development have set child psychology moving in entirely new directions. His bold speculations have provided the inspiration for the work of others. His studies have been the subject of many books and countless articles. And, significantly, his influence has spread to other disciplines and is having an ever-growing impact on the general culture at large.Here Jean Piaget, with the assistance of his long-time collaborator Bärbel Inhelder, offers a definitive presentation of the developmental psychology he has elaborated over the last forty years. This comprehensive synthesis traces each stage of the child’s cognitive development, over the entire period of childhood, from infancy to adolescence.
 

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Contents

THE SENSORIMOTOR LEVEL
4
Sensorimotor Intelligence
5
2 Stage 1
7
3 Stage 2
9
4 Stage 3
10
5 Stages 4 and 5
11
6 Stage 6
12
The Construction of Reality
14
Language
85
1 Evolution
86
2 Language and Thought
87
3 Language and Logic
88
4 Language and Operations
90
5 Conclusion
92
THE CONCRETE OPERATIONS OF THOUGHT AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
93
The Three Levels in the Transition from Action to Operation
94

1 The Permanent Object
15
2 Space and Time
16
3 Causality
18
The Cognitive Aspect of Sensorimotor Reactions
20
The Affective Aspect of Sensorimotor Reactions
22
1 The Initial Adualism
23
2 Intermediary Reactions
25
3 Object Relations
26
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERCEPTION
29
Perceptual Constancies and Perceptual Causality
30
1 Constancy of Form
32
3 The Permanent Object and Perception
33
4 Perceptual Causality
34
Field Effects
36
The Perceptual Activities
40
Perceptions Concepts and Operations
44
1 Methods
45
2 Projective Concepts and Perceptions
46
3 Perceptual Constancies and Operatory Conservations
47
4 Situation 4
49
5 Conclusion
50
THE SEMIOTIC OR SYMBOLIC FUNCTION
52
The Semiotic Function and Imitation
53
1 The Appearance of the Semiotic Function
54
2 The Role of Imitation
55
3 Symbols and Signs
58
Drawing
64
Mental Images
69
1 The Problems Raised by the Image
70
2 Two Types of Images
71
3 Copy Images
73
4 Kinetic and Transformational Images
75
5 Images and Operations
78
Memory and the Structure of ImageMemories
81
The Genesis of the Concrete Operations
97
1 Notions of Conservation
98
2 The Concrete Operations
101
3 Seriation
102
4 Classification
103
5 Number
105
6 Space
107
7 Time and Speed
108
Representation of the Universe Causality and Chance
110
Social and Affective Interactions
115
2 The Problem
117
3 Socialization
118
Moral Feelings and Judgments
123
1 The Genesis of Duty
124
2 Heteronomy
125
3 Moral Realism
126
4 Autonomy
128
Conclusion
129
THE PREADOLESCENT AND THE PROPOSITIONAL OPERATIONS
131
Formal Thought and the Combinatorial System
133
2 Combinations of Objects
134
3 Propositional Combinations
135
The Two Reversibilities
137
The Formal Operatory Schemes
141
1 Proportions
142
2 Double Systems of Reference
144
4 Notions of Probability
145
The Induction of Laws and the Dissociation of Factors
146
2 The Pendulum
148
The Affective Transformations
150
FACTORS IN MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
153
Bibliography
161
Index
163
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About the author (2008)

Jean Piaget, 1896-1980 Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist, whose original training was in the natural sciences, spent much of his career studying the psychological development of children, largely at the Institut J.J. Rousseau at the University of Geneva, but also at home, with his own children as subjects. The impact of this research on child psychology has been enormous, and Piaget is the starting point for those seeking to learn how children view numbers, how they think of cause-and-effect relationships, or how they make moral judgments. Piaget found that cognitive development from infancy to adolescence invariably proceeds in four major stages from infancy to adolescence: sensory-motor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Each of these stages is marked by the development of cognitive structures, making possible the solution of problems that were impossible earlier and laying the foundation for the cognitive advances of the next stage. He showed that rational adult thinking is the culmination of an extensive process that begins with elementary sensory experiences and unfolds gradually until the individual is capable of dealing with imagined concepts, that is, abstract thought. By learning how children comprehend the world and how their intellectual processes mature, Piaget contributed much to the theory of knowledge as an active process in which the mind transforms reality. Put simply, Piaget described children from a perspective that no one had seen before.

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