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accumulation angle appears Argillaceous shale base beds belong central Channel character cliffs closely coal coast common considerable containing continuous covered crater deposits depth described direction distinct district east elevation eruption examined extending feet folds formation former fossils fragments Geol geological hills Hippurite inch iron Island Italy Jurassic land latter layers length less limestone Lisbon London clay lower margin marked mass materials miles mineral Monte nature nearly numerous Nummulites observed occur oolite origin passing pebbles period PLATE pleistocene portion position present probably recent referred remarkable resemblance river rocks rounded sand sandstone seen separated shale shells side similar slate Society species specimens strata structure subcretaceous surface tertiary thickness tion traces upper valley valve vein volcanic whole
Page 305 - This river is several hundred miles in length, and from half a mile to a mile and a half in breadth, and winds through a hilly, and in many places a fertile and highly cultivated country.
Page xxxii - Geology," the conviction at which I had then arrived, after devoting some time to observation in the field, and to the study of the works of earlier writers, that the existing causes of change in the animate and inanimate world might be similar, not only in kind, but in degree, to those which have prevailed during many successive modifications of the earth's crust.
Page 350 - ... of yellow ochrey hydrous peroxide of iron. In some parts of the vein, the ankerite is intimately mixed with crystals and veinlets of yellowish spathose iron. The red ochrey iron ore occurs in minor veins and irregular masses dispersed in the ankerite. Some of these veins are two yards in thickness ; and the shapeless masses are often of much larger dimensions. Specular iron ore also occurs in small irregular veins, and in disseminated crystals and nests. At one part of the bank there appears...
Page xlv - Whewell has justly observed, that " mechanical power retains its amount, however much it be distributed through time and divested of the character of extraordinary violence,"* — a principle which should never be lost sight of when we contrast the effects of the historical with those of antecedent epochs. It is not the magnitude of the effects, however gigantic their proportions, which can inform us in the slightest degree whether the operation was sudden or gradual, insensible or paroxysmal.
Page 336 - Of the law which determines the extinction of races of highly organized beings, and whose effects through countless ages Palaeontology has in part revealed, we are as utterly ignorant as of that which governs the first appearance of the minutest living animalcule which the most powerful microscope enables us to descry : — both are veiled in inscrutable mystery, — the results only are within the scope of our finite comprehension. I have thus endeavoured to present a general idea of the facts and...
Page 16 - Jurassic strata, and still more with the palseozoic deposits, has been regarded by Dr. Boue', not without some probability, as the most ancient known effect of the influence of climate on the fauna of former worlds. In reality the most northerly point on the whole earth in which chalk has as yet been found is, according to Prof. Forchhammer's determination, in the vicinity of Thistedt in Jutland, not quite in 57 degrees of latitude, or in that of Aberdeen in Scotland, of Calmar, Mitau, Twer and Casan....
Page 244 - Strickland's paper the following remarks : — " (7) Ferruginous beds, consisting of coarse Oolite in the upper part, and of a very peculiar large-grained Oolite or Pisolite ('Pea-grit') in the lower. A few miles to the south the Pisolite disappears, and is replaced near Painswick and at Haresfield Hill by strata containing ferruginous oolitic grains in a brown paste.
Page xxxviii - English geologist who is old enough to remember when all the soft clays and loose sands overlying the chalk, some of them containing shells of species identical with those now living, were looked upon as very modern, and as the creations of yesterday, in comparison with the rocks of the higher Alps, it may well appear a startling proposition to learn that the clay of London was in the course of accumulation as marine mud at a time when the ocean still rolled its waves over the space now occupied...
Page 351 - ... band of slate and quartzite. Westward of the Acadia Mine the course of the vein over the high ground is marked by the colour of the soil, as far as Cook's Brook, about a mile distant. The outcrop of the ore was not exposed in this brook, but large fragments of specular ore have been found in its bed, and a .shaft, sunk on the course of the vein, has penetrated more than forty feet through yellow ochre containing a few rounded masses and irregular layers of ankerite. At this point the decomposition...