The Shadow Economy: An International Survey
Cambridge University Press, Feb 14, 2013 - Business & Economics - 216 pages
Illicit work, social security fraud, economic crime and other shadow economy activities are fast becoming an international problem. This second edition uses new data to reassess currency demand and the model approach to estimate the size of the shadow economy in seventy-six developing, transition and OECD countries. This updated edition argues that during the 2000s the average size of a shadow economy varied from 19% of GDP for OECDs, to 30% for transition countries and 45% for developing countries. It examines the causes and consequences of this development using an integrated approach explaining deviant behavior, which combines findings from economic, sociological and psychological research. The authors suggest that increasing taxation, social security contributions, rising state regulatory activities and the decline of the tax morale are all driving forces behind this growth and they propose a reform of state public institutions in order to improve the dynamics of the official economy.
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a challenge for economic and social policy
Deﬁning the shadow economy
Methods to estimate the size of the shadow economy
Size of shadow economies around the world
The size of the shadoweconomy labour force
An integrated approach to explain deviant behaviour
Other editions - View all
additional allocation analysis approach beneﬁts billion euros black market capital cent context contributions correlation costs decrease deﬁned deﬁnition demand deviant behaviour distortions economic policy effects efﬁciency empirical engage in shadow Enste estimation euros example factors ﬁght ﬁnancial ﬁnd ﬁnes ﬁrms ﬁrst ﬁscal freedom Frey Germany Gretschmann growth hidden economy higher illicit labour illicit workers illicitly incentives income increase indifference curve individual inﬂuence informal sector integrated Kirchgassner labour force labour market regulation Laffer curve leads Loayza macroeconomic million negative norms OECD OECD countries ofﬁcial economy ofﬁcial labour ofﬁcial sector option perception Pommerehne production proﬁt random effects model reactance reactance theory reduce reform regulation index restrictions Schneider and Enste shadow economic activities shadow economy signiﬁcant social security systems Speciﬁcation Stabilisation policy supply tax burden tax evasion tax morality tax rates tax yield tion underground economy unofﬁcial utility variables wage rate welfare welfare economic