The Structure of Value: Foundations of Scientific Axiology
Hartman's revolutionary book introduces formal orderly thinking into value theory. It identifies three basic kinds of value, intrinsic goods (e.g., people as ends in themselves), extrinsic goods (e.g., things and actions as means to ends), and systemic goods (conceptual values). All good things share a common formal or structural pattern: they fulfill the ideal standards or "concepts" that we apply to them. Thus, this theory is called "formal axiology." Some values are richer in good-making property-fulfillment than others, so some desirable things are better than others and form patterned hierarchies of value. How we value is just as important as what we value, and evaluations, like values, share structures or formal patterns, as this book demonstrates. Hartman locates all of this solidly within the framework of historical value theory, but he moves successfully and creatively beyond philosophical tradition and toward the creation of a new value science.
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abstraction actually analysis analytic concepts applied Aristotle axio axiological science axiological value axiom axiomatic called cept confusion contained copula corresponding defined descriptive properties determined differentiation disvaluation empirical ethics Euthyphro example exposition extension extensional extrinsic fact and value fair formal axiology formula frame of reference fulfillment function G. E. Moore Galileo Hartman hence horse infinite infinity intensional intrinsic nature intrinsic properties intrinsic value judgments Kant language latter Leibniz logical propositions logical value mathematics means measure metaphysical method modality Moore's Moore's paradox moral philosophy moral science natural philosophy natural science naturalistic fallacy Nicolai Hartmann no-good norm ought-value particular pattern philos physics precision Principia Ethica science of value scientific secondary properties sense set of properties singular specific structure subject matter symbols synthetic concepts systematic systemic value theoretical thing thinking thought tion transposition valuation value dimensions value phenomena value properties value propositions value theory words