The Twenty-Five Cent Gamble

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This story is a true, revealing, and sometimes shocking insight into the little known world of educational test publishing and the gamble that led the flamboyant Ethel Clark to become one of the industry's major players. How she grew the business (once known as California Test Bureau, now CTB/McGraw-Hill) and dealt with the IRS, the unions, the U.S. Army, and her scholarly husband, Willis, was far from traditional, and her personal life was often scandalous. Ethel's drive to "be somebody," her disregard for conventional behavior, and her foresight in adopting leading-edge technology contrasted sharply with the persona of her husband Willis Clark, Ed.D. Willis was a pioneer in educational testing, who dedicated his life to the development of many nationally used educational tests and always emphasized the importance of designing tests with results to "help the teacher help the child." Ethel and Willis greatly influenced the growth and prominence of one of America's significant but controversial industries. An Appendix highlights test development from conception to the application of test results.

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About the author (2012)

The author, June Duran Stock, is the Clark's daughter. Her entire career has been associated with the testing industry from test development to legislative and legal matters. An Assistant Vice President of CTB/McGraw-Hill she also served for five years as chair of the Test Committee of the Association of American Publishers. June is on the board of the Willis W. and Ethel M. Clark Foundation and is listed in Who's Who in America. She lives in Pebble Beach, California.

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