The VAT in Developing and Transitional Countries
Value-added tax (VAT) dominates tax systems around the world. But should every country have a VAT? Is VAT always as good as it could be in economic, equity and administrative terms? In developing and transitional countries the answers to such questions are critical to stability, growth and development. VAT is a critical fiscal tool in most countries. But VAT can sometimes be better designed and almost always better administered. The key questions that must be answered in designing and implementing VAT are essentially the same in all countries. But different tax designs may best suit different countries facing different circumstances. This book reviews experiences with VATs around the world and assesses how the choice of particular design features may affect outcomes in particular contexts.
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2 The Rise of VAT
3 Is VAT Always the Answer ?
4 Trade and Revenue
5 Equity and the Informal Sector
6 What Should Be Taxed?
7 Key Issues in VAT Design
8 New Issues in VAT Design
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applied approach Argentina audit Canada Cnossen collected Colombia complex compliance costs consumers consumption tax CVAT deﬁnition detailed developing and transitional developing countries difﬁcult discussed in Chapter distortions Ebrill economic effect efﬁciency equity estimated evasion example excise exempt exports extent federal ﬁnal ﬁnancial services ﬁrms ﬁrst ﬁscal ﬂow implementation important imposed income tax increase informal sector input tax credits input VAT issues Jamaica Keen Nonetheless nonproﬁt OECD ofﬁcial PNC sector political problems production provinces purchases QuŽebec ratio reason rebate recent reduced rate reﬂect relatively respect result retail sales tax seller Services Tax signiﬁcant simply speciﬁc standard rate structure subnational VATs suggests Table tax administration tax base tax policy tax rates tax system taxable taxation taxpayers threshold trade transactions transitional countries turnover Ukraine value-added tax VAT design VAT rate VAT registrants VAT revenues VAT system World Bank zero-rating
Page 233 - Constitutions, politics and economics; a review essay on Persson and Tabellini's The Economic Effects of Constitutions', Journal of Economic Literature, 34(4), 1025-48.
Page 236 - Taxation in Latin America: Reflections on Sustainability and the Balance between Efficiency and Equity," ITP Paper 0306, International Tax Program, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, June.