The Anatomy of Labour as Studied in Frozen Sections: And Its Bearing on Clinical Work

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W. & A.K. Johnston, 1899 - Labor (Obstetrics) - 216 pages
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Page 4 - This membrane is an efflorescence of the internal coat of the uterus itself, and is therefore shed as often as a woman bears a child or suffers a miscarriage. It is of considerable thickness, and one stratum of it is always left upon the uterus after delivery, most of which dissolves and comes away with the lochia.
Page 13 - I have found to correspond in the main to the line of the ureters. Along this line they have the following relations to the pelvic brim (in the recent state) : At the bifurcation, half an inch below ; at the extremities of the transverse diameter of the pelvis, about an inch ; and at the spine of the pubes, two inches below. As a whole, the tubes in the pelvis are situated upon a higher plane than in the non-pregnant condition, having been carried slightly upward while being separated from their...
Page 13 - Reaching the bony brim (the ilio-pectineal line), they leave the pelvic wall, emerging from beneath the base of the broad ligaments (in pregnancy about on a level with the pelvic brim, and carried back on a line with the synchondrosis), and take a course downward, forward, and somewhat inward, passing about midway between the pelvic wall and the cervico-vaginal junction, but approaching very closely the antero-lateral wall of the vagina, as they turn more decidedly inward, on a lower plane, to strike...
Page 155 - ... across at their widest part. The surface of the cavity of the body of the uterus presents three distinct appearances : on the posterior wall is an area (3x3 in.) which is ragged and of a purplish colour — the placental site ; the upper third of the anterior wall is smoother and paler than the rest of the cavity, which has a mottled appearance, due to little shreds of brick-red tissue adhering to it. The smooth appearance of the wall is evidently due to its being lined by a membrane which ends...
Page 4 - ... that the human placenta, like that of the quadruped, is composed of two distinct parts, though blended together, viz., an umbilical which may be considered as a part of the foetus, and an uterine which belongs to the mother ; that each of these parts has its peculiar system of arteries and veins, and its peculiar circulation, receiving blood by its arteries, and returning it by its veins ; that the circulation through these two parts of the placenta differs in the following manner : in the umbilical...
Page 3 - One is the simple portrait, in which the object is represented exactly as it was seen ; the other is a representation of the object under such circumstances as were not actually seen, but conceived in the imagination.
Page 4 - ... uterine which belongs to the mother ; that each of these parts has its peculiar system of arteries and veins, and its peculiar circulation, receiving blood by its arteries, and returning it by its veins ; that the circulation through these two parts of the placenta differs in the following manner : in the umbilical portion the arteries terminate in the veins by a continuity of canal, whereas in the uterine portion there are intermediate cells into which the arteries terminate, and from which...
Page 14 - Duncan further affirms that, 2, the capacity of the cervical cavity becomes gradually greater as pregnancy advances ; and this is effected by an increase of its diameter, or breadth, advancing from below upwards — that is, from the external to the internal os of the cervix.
Page 100 - ... separation, and that this may be either rather less or rather more than one-half of its area before labour had begun, are anatomical facts, but not nearly so significant as the following one — that with this amount of retraction the uterine wall embraces the placenta all round. In other words, the placenta has not become separated before the uterus begins to act on it as a whole. When this has taken place, the operating force is no longer retraction of the site alone, but retraction of the...
Page 4 - ... union. While these two parts are combined, the placenta makes a pretty firm mass ; no part of it is loose or floating. But when they are carefully separated, the umbilical system is evidently nothing but loose floating ramifications of the umbilical vessels, like that vascular portion of the chorion which makes part of the placentula in a calf; and the uterine part is seen shooting out into innumerable floating processes and rugae, with the most irregular and most minutely subdivided cavities...

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