The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic
Ralph Merrifield systematically examines the evidence from prehistoric times to the present and demonstrates that all through the fundamental changes of belief--from primitive animism to Christianity to scientific rationalism--the same kinds of simple ritual have survived because they answer deep human needs.
Offerings to earth and water in preRoman and Roman times
Rituals of death
From Paganism to Christianity
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acoustic pots amphora animal deposits archaeological archaeologists associated belief bellarmine beneath bones bottle Bronze Age building burial buried Cambridgeshire cemetery century BC charms Christian church City of London coins complete contained cremation cult curse custom Danebury dead decapitated deities deliberately ditch dogs earlier early evidence example Excavations finds floor foundation deposits fourth century funerary grave head hoard horse-skulls horses human inhumation Kent Lankhills late Roman later London Museum Lullingstone Roman villa magic square magical mediaeval Museum of London nails Neolithic offerings pagan particularly perhaps pins placed possible pottery practice pre-Roman Iron Age presumably probably purpose recognised relics religious rite ritual deposits river Roman Britain Roman period sacrifice saints second century seems seventeenth century shaft shoes shrine similar skeleton skulls sometimes Southwark spirit stone axes Street suggested superstitious survived symbols temple tomb tradition votive deposit Walbrook wall witch witch-bottle witchcraft