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Hymenopterous insects as pests
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adult agricultural Anon Apidae apocritan larva areas arthropods bees and wasps beeswax Billany biological control Blab Britain British bumblebees cause Cephalcia lariciphila chalcid wasps Chalcidoidea Chrysidoidea Clausen commercially conifer conservation Corbet Council of Europe crops damage defoliate Diprionidae Eanada endangered entomological environment Environmental Epimyrma ravouxi example feeding female field beans flowers forest insects forestry Formica lugubris Formica rufa fruit gall wasp genus Gilpinia hercyniae habitats honey bees host Hymenoptera hymenopterous parasitoids ichneumon-flies Ichneumonidae idae important infestation introduced Invertebrates large numbers larvae legislation major moth native bees natural nest sites nest-box number of species order Hymenoptera organisms ovipositor Pamphiliidae parasites parasitica parasitoids Pavan phytophagous plants pollinators populations predators Pristiphora protect insects Pyle and Collins Red Data Book scale insects seeds social wasps specialised species of Hymenoptera sting Suborder Superfamily Symphyta threat trees venomous whitefly wood ants wood ants Formica woodlands Zealand