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action of carbon already apparatus barium carbonate bars brittleness carbon content carbon dioxide carbon monoxide carbon steels carburizing action cement iron cement steel cementation boxes cementation carried cementation chamber Cementation Furnace cementation process cemented and hardened cemented pieces cemented zones obtained cementite cements with carbon Charpy chromium cited concentration contained curves cyanides cylinders decarburization depth diagram diffusion effected equilibrium ethylene experimental experiments fact free carbon furnace furnish gaseous cements gases granular carbon Guillet hardened pieces hydrocarbons hyper-eutectic illuminating gas investigations Ledebur manganese Mannesmann Margueritte mass metal Micrograph mixed cement mixed crystals mixture muffle nitrogen observations operation ordinary oxide patents pearlite penetration percent placed potassium potassium cyanide potassium ferrocyanide powder practice precise present pressure process of cementation pyrometer quenching retort sclerometer soft steel solid cements special steels specimens substances surface of fracture temperature test pieces thick tion tube variations various velocity wood charcoal
Page 171 - In connection with this, carbon dioxide is also formed by the action of the oxygen of the air on the carbon of the coal and timber...
Page 3 - Illinois who held county or state offices during the last years of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth did not descend from the old families.
Page 176 - ... are constantly in action, among which may be mentioned the burning of lights and the gases generated by blasting, and aside from this, carbon dioxide is escaping continuously from the pores of the coal as chambers and gangways are being driven. In connection with this, carbon dioxide is also formed by the action of the oxygen of the air on the carbon of the coal and timber; when carbon dioxide is formed in this way oxygen is taken from the air, the amount so taken being equal to the carbon dioxide...
Page 115 - ... longer vary markedly, even if the proportion of the hydrocarbon increases greatly. " From what precedes it is evidently possible to obtain, by means of mixtures of carbon monoxide and vapors of volatile hydrocarbons, cemented zones in which the maximum concentration of the carbon in the external layers has a definite value, lying between a minimum corresponding to that which would be obtained by working under the given conditions with pure carbon monoxide, and a maximum which would be obtained...
Page 52 - Al, and that the substances which accelerate cementation are those which seem to exist in the state of double carbides, substituting a part of the iron of the cementite, as Mn, Cr.
Page 89 - ... have based this assertion on the results of simple gravimetric determinations (direct or indirect) of the carbon which has penetrated by diffusion into the iron, without taking care to learn in what state this carbon is present in the iron and what effects it produces on the nature and on the structure of the metal into which it has penetrated; in other words, they have meant by " cementation" any process whatever of "carburization
Page 88 - The cause of the apparent disagreement is to be found in the different methods of observation used to establish and measure the cementation, and to the consequent varying significance attributed to the word "cementation.
Page 89 - Now, by a mechanism analogous to that which I have already explained (see p. 87), the carbon monoxide diffusing into the iron deposits carbon there, even in the case when...