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The four cardinal points image construction
The limited usefulness of the four cardinal points
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angular aperture apply approximate assumed axial potential distribution beam becomes behaviour cardinal points Chapter chromatic aberration coefficients condenser lens condition const constant construction coordinates derived described determined differential equation discussed electron lenses electron optical equal exist expressions fact field function Figure focal lengths focal points formulae functional relation give given Glaser Ref hence integral known limiting magnetic magnetic field magnetic lens magnification means method numerical º º object object and image object position obtained optical axis optimum position path physical planes plot position possible potential function principal problem properties purely quantities radius realize relation respect satisfy shown simple ſº solution space spherical aberration strength theoretical theory tion values variation voltage ratio zero